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How to Write a Criminal Law Essay

Law students are often asked to write essays, either on assigned or chosen topics, or in response to specific questions. In addition, the bar exam for most states includes an essay section. Criminal law essay assignments are designed to ensure that students understand the laws of their state, and of the nation, and that they know how to use them in a criminal case.

Law students often write criminal law essays.


  1. Read the question or essay topic carefully. Criminal law topics are often complex and involve many angles and points of view. Make a list of all secondary questions posed within the main question, or all angles of approach to your topic. Determine whether you are being asked to provide an argument of defense, an argument of prosecution or simply an overview of existing law.
  2. Research all case law that applies to your topic. Expect to spend time in your local law library and on the Internet. Write down the name of the case, such as “Miranda v Arizona.” Also record the year and state in which the decision was rendered.
  3. Address each question separately and in order if you are responding to a multi-part question. Finish your answer for each section completely before beginning the next. If an answer relates to a previous question, you may refer back to your previous answer.
  4. Structure your essay as a law brief unless the professor instructs you to do otherwise. While most essays consist of sentences and paragraphs that transition naturally, law briefs are divided using outline style. General answers to each posited question should be marked with a Roman numeral. Denote supporting points with a capital letter and indent each section.
  5. Present possible arguments by opposing council if you are writing a position or argument essay. Posit the other sides’ likely response and how you can counter those responses.
  6. Summarize your position by highlighting the main points of your argument, as you would in a closing statement.

Law school Questions and Answers

A never married dad wants at least joint custody of 3year old daughter in michigan and can not afford a lawyer
mother is uncooperative and caddy. father makes $30000 per year and can’t afford lawyer, she will not give joint custody willingly, what can father do? Contact a local law school and ask them for the phone number of.

Do female lawyers face discrimination in the workplace/school?
According to the Princeton Review, as well as several other reputable sources, women can be treated poorly by their male classmates in law school. In fact, the PR includes a list of ‘women-friendly’ universities because this sexism is so widespread. Also, I have read that often women often are passed over.

Do judges need to be attorneys?
Do appointed court judges need to be attorneys A college degree and work experience is the minimum requirement to be a judge. Most judges have worked as lawyers. In fact, Federal and State judges usually must have worked as lawyers. That means that they need to go to law school. Law school usually.

Do Law Students help out in court?
and if so, what do they do? There are law school ‘clinical programs’ in which 2d and 3d year students get to represent low-income people in court, under a lawyer’s supervision. There are other programs where the students work as interns in law firms, and get to do some of the research.

What are the education requirements for lawyers?
*sigh* this is for a project im doing generally, 4 years high school 4 years college three years law school pass the bar exam in the state you want to practice in. – 1 – Graduate high school 2 – Graduate college 3 – Graduate law school And, if they want to.

What are the steps to being a Real Estate lawyer or attorney?
It’s not so difficult. First you complete your B.A. or B.S. Then you go to law school. It helps if you take some courses in law school that focus on real estate, for example: Real Estate Transactions, Land Use, Real Estate Litigation. Do your best in.

What do I need to do to be a Pennsylvania lawyer? And how long will it take?
You need to go to college (4to5 years.) You need to go to law school (3 years) You then need to study for and take the Penn Bar Exam. This can take 3 months to forever Shortest amount of time would.

What type of career options are available for lawyers specializing in international law?
Also, what is the average salary. Is it an in demand field? Please include any other information you can give me about this type of law. I am about to attend law school next year. I am thinking about specializing in corporate law or international law..

Whats involved to become a lawyer?
Just wondering about possible future careers and would like to know what you need to do to become a lawyer, how many years at university and what you do when you become one? You must take a first degree, then apply to law school. It doesn’t matter what you major in for your.

What’s the difference between a JD (juris doctor) and an LLM (‘?’)?
Can I take the bar exam with either? Chances for gainful employment better with one or the other? Which is harder to earn? You receive a JD after successfully completing and graduating from an ABA accredited law school. It takes 3 years day or 4 year evening.

Which Law School?
Which Law School? I have the option to attend Albany Law (no scholarship costs $35k a year, but is a Tier 3 law school), Western New England Law (Scholarship money will make my out of pocket cost $15k a year but it is a Tier 4 law school located in Springfield Mass) or New England Law.

do you think my hopes and dreams will come true for me being a layer?
i wanna go to law school when i grow up I always say ‘If you can dream it, you can be it.’ You can be anything that you want to be. With enough hard work and dedication, you can do anything. Keep a positive.

Would law schools be more lenient on GPA if I major in Chemical Engineering and aspire to be a patent lawyer?
I’m a second-year ChemE major student at UC Berkeley. I want to go to law school and practice patent law, but my GPA is a little less than a 3.0. Do I have a chance? I think you.

Any recommendations for a good LSAT book?
I’m planning on taking the LSATs and pursuing law school but there are so many LSAT books out there, I don’t know which one to pick. Any really effective LSAT practice books that you guys recommend? The best study guides I found were the Powerscore Bibles (I took the course as well,.

Become a lawyer?
I’m interested in the law, government and politics. I’m in college studying political science and I do very well and like my major a lot. I also like history. A lot of people tell me I’d make a great lawyer. I have doubts though. How do I decide to go to law school? Do lawyers have.

Does anyone know where i can get money to go to law school?
Typically, there is less federal assistance available for law school. There are very few grants available for the government, because they expect you to be able to make enough money to pay them back later. But you should be able to take out a combination.
Does it make sense to earn a second bachelor’s degree before going to law school?
I went to a small ‘no name’ liberal arts college and earned a BS in Computer Science. I earned a MBA online. I am now a math teacher in an inner city public high school. (The same one I went to) Go figure! I.

How does Skinner v. Oklahoma 1942 been used to expand the protections of the constitution?
or it could be Levy v. Louisiana 1968, Craig v. Boren 1976, and/or Lawrence v. Texas 2003. go to click on case brief bank click on constitutional law briefs then look up each case. I am in law school isn’t that hard.

How long do you have to got to school to be a lawyer?
3 years after undergrad if you go full time, 4 if you go part time. – 2 more years after college – Four years of college, two years of law school. – 7 years, but many schools will give life experience credit for a history.

How many credits do you need to be a lawyer.?
I’m not sure what you mean by credits. To be a lawyer, you must have an undergraduate degree and then attend law school. Law school is usually 3 or 4 years (full v. part time). Each school has different required courses and credit requirements. After you graduate law.

How many years do you have to to school to be an Entertainment Lawyer?
An American Bar Association approved law school is generally 3 years long. To be admitted to such a school you’ll need an undergraduate degree (i.e. a BA) and to take the LSAT. After going to law school you’ll need to to take the bar.

How many years of college does it take to become a lawyer?
About 7 years all together when you figure 4 years of college and then 3 years of law school. You can talk to any attorney or go to the law library or any college and they will tell you everything you have to do to become.

How to be a lawyer in California?.a step by step walkthrough.?
Get good grades in high school and graduate. Take the SAT and get a good score. Go to college, get good grades and earn a BA or BS. Take the LSAT, and score high. Get accepted to a CA accredited law school. Graduate from law school with.

I need some info on common law, how can i get it done?
I would recommend going to a local law library (and local law school will have one) and using some of the treatises on law. Treatises give the generally accepted rules for the various issues in law and the notable exceptions to those rules. Additionally, they.

I want to find a law school in NYC and the price it will cost to go there can anyone help me thank you?
There are numerous law schools in New York City. There’s New York University, Columbia, Fordham Law School, Cardozo Law School (a school in Yeshiva University), and New York Law School (different from NYU). St..

If you want to work in govt. intelligence do you have to go to law school?
No. Usually an analyst has another particular skill such as foreign language experience and a specialty that makes them valuable. For me it was my background in mathematics that attracted their attention. – honestly now.when you think about it what does govt.

Fiance is Army officer, got ed. delay for grad. school. Is he considered ‘in the the Army’ while on delay?
Fiance and I are getting married while he’s on an educational delay for law school. He was a First Lieutenant prior to entering law school, and I’m trying to figure out the proper way to word our wedding invitation..

Has a registered sex offender EVER become successful AFTER.?
Has a registered sex offender ever shook off the chains of the scarlett letter and become a succesful and productive member of society? I am not talking about the ones who fail to register and skate by on anonymity or the people who become advocates. I am in law school.

Obtaining TWO Juris Doctor Degrees?
I recently obtained my J.D. degree. However, my grades were not that hot. However, I definitely feel in retrospect, if I were given the second chance to ‘redo’ law school, I’d be able to do much better. I was just wondering if I had the chance to pursue another J.D. degree, at another.

The stuff that happens to prosecutors on TV are fake, right?
Prosecutors getting framed, kidnapped, ambushed, murdered by the minions of the criminals they put away, that’s all TV right? Or does it really happen in real life? Because i’m thinking law school right now and being a prosecutor is my main career objective. I have known hundreds of.

There is no way i can get to harvord what is a good law school in NORTH CAROLINA?
I NEED TO KNOW QUIK Duke? UNC?(any campus) NC State? Appalachian State? – s – Duke – Duke – North carolina state ncs sorry this is my partners suggestion – Duke. One of our own presidents received his law degree from.

Top 10 Legal Rights and Issues Everyone Should Know About

10. When You’re Breaking Copyright Law

Just by doing typical online activities, you’re probably breaking copyright law. If you use a copyrighted song in a home video uploaded to YouTube, for example, or create a gif (or other derivative work) to start a meme, you’re infringing on the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. However, some copyright infringements are more tolerated than others—and copyright law is complex—so a quick test if you still want to share online without legal recourse might be to ask yourself if what you’re doing “feels wrong” to you.

9. What You Can and Can’t Do While Driving

Top 10 Legal Rights and Issues Everyone Should Know About

You know you shouldn’t use your cell phone while driving, but states have different bans, on the kinds of cell phone use that are illegal while driving: Most ban texting while driving, but some don’t allow any use of your phone when you’re at the wheel. Know what’s allowed in your state and the penalties for texting while driving (but, seriously, just don’t do it). In a similar vein, is it illegal to wear headphones when you’re driving? In some states, it is. Many states have strange driving laws, like traffic violations if you leave your car door open “longer than is deemed necessary.”

8. Taking and Sharing Photographs or Videos

Top 10 Legal Rights and Issues Everyone Should Know About

We have a right to take photographs and videos in public, right? Since, after all, this is First Amendment stuff. There are times when you can get into trouble, though, like if you’re publishing photos that disclose private information about others. How you publish photos and videos also matters. This Creative Commons licensing chart could help if you’re not sure whether you’re allowed to use others’ works in your own.

7. Your Rights When Dealing with the Police

Top 10 Legal Rights and Issues Everyone Should Know About1

No one wants to get arrested. When you’re dealing with cops, know your rights, such as refusing a search, your Miranda rights, and how to exercise your rights safely. In addition to this know your rights infographic, these ex-cop’s tips and these wallet cards could help you stay out of jail.

6. Your Rights as a Renter

Top 10 Legal Rights and Issues Everyone Should Know About

Your landlord doesn’t hold all the cards. Even difficult landlords have to abide by state regulations to make sure you’re getting fair housing in exchange for your rent. If you rent, read up on your state laws, such as how your security deposits must be kept and whether you should expect interest on that deposit.

5. Your Rights When You Fly on a Plane

Top 10 Legal Rights and Issues Everyone Should Know About

There are quite a few rights you have as an air traveler that you might not be aware of, such as locking in your fare in advance and reimbursement you’re entitled to for lost luggage or bumped flights. Know what to do if your flight gets canceled (spoiler: get on the phone). The jury’s still out on that reclining seat vs. Knee Defender kerfuffle, though.

4. Your Rights as an Employee

Top 10 Legal Rights and Issues Everyone Should Know About

It’s possible, depending on your type of position, that you are owed overtime pay, whether your employer likes it or not. Similarly, even if your employer doesn’t want you to discuss your salary with your co-workers, they can’t legally prevent you from doing so. These are some of the less-known workplace rights your HR department might not be telling you. (Head to your state’s department of labor site for things like Workers’ Comp and laws on taking breaks, etc.)

3. The Legal Documents You Should Have Prepared Before You Kick the Bucket

Having a will and all of your important papers organized will give you peace of mind and reduce stress for your loved ones if you suddenly died or were seriously ill. In addition to medical directives, you should also have your property information, bank and insurance info, and other documents shared with your loved ones. Here’s our master information spreadsheet template for setting this up, the Wall Street Journal’s list of 25 documents to gather, and previously mentioned Everplans, which walks you through estate planning.

2. How to Make Sense of Legal Documents

Everything from opening a bank account to getting a new job requires us to sign long and often confusing legal forms. You’ll still have to read through them all, but there are ways to quickly make better sense of them.

One type of agreement we probably all just skip through? Those Terms of Service and privacy policies on every service or piece of software. You can quickly read through those as well. Even if breaking a Terms of Service might not necessarily be a crime, it’s still a good idea to know what you’re agreeing to.

Top 10 Legal Rights and Issues Everyone Should Know About

1. When You Need a Lawyer (and How to Talk to One)

A good lawyer may be your best friend in difficult legal situations, like when you’re trying to start your own business based on proprietary information, are getting a divorce, or have been charged with a crime. Even just signing or creating freelancing agreements can be tricky (which is why services like LegalSifter come in handy). Here’s how to find a good lawyer and work with him or her.

5 Things You Must to Know About Consumer Law

1. Misleading your customers is illegal

The main purpose of the Fair Trading Act is to protect consumers. You must not mislead your customers or give them false information. But remember, businesses buy goods and services too, so businesses are also protected.

2. Customers must be able to rely on your quotes and estimates

Providing quotes or estimates to your potential customers is a key part of doing business. A quote is an offer to do a job for a certain price. It’s likely to be misleading if you charge more than your quote, unless you have explicitly agreed a variation with your customer beforehand.

An estimate is the nearest price, or range of prices, that you can give your customer based on past experience. All limits and conditions must be clearly spelled out. If there is to be a significant variation from the estimated price, you should make this, and the nature of the possible variation, very clear to your customer. You must make estimates honestly and base them on reasonable grounds.

3. Misleading consumers about their rights is illegal

You must not mislead your customers about their contractual or legal rights. For example, if an insurance company advises a customer “you’re only entitled to a second-hand hot water cylinder” in a situation where the customer’s insurance policy entitles them to a new hot water cylinder, this would likely be misleading under the Act.

4. Unfair contract terms

If you offer standard form consumer contracts to your customers, terms in that contract must be fair. Standard form consumer contracts are typically contracts with standard terms and conditions that are offered on a “take it or leave it basis” where the consumer does not have an opportunity to effectively negotiate the terms and conditions in the contract.

The laws about unfair contract terms apply to any standard form consumer contracts entered into on or after 17 March 2015 and to terms in existing contracts that are renewed or changed on or after 17 March 2015.

5. Keep up to date with important changes to the Fair Trading Act

There have been some important changes to the Act that you should know about including additional rights for consumers and obligations for businesses, as well as investigation and enforcement tools for the Commission.

Religious Morality vs. Civil Law

When, if ever, should personal religious morality take precedence over neutral, public laws and standards of justice? In a civil, secular society the answer should probably be “never,” but not all religious believers agree with this. One issue which underlies so many religious conflicts, not to mention religious extremism, is the conviction held by many religious believers that their religious morality, supposedly from their god, should take precedence when they believe the law has failed.

The underlying principle behind this is the belief that all proper or just morality, law, standards of conduct, ethics, and authority ultimately derives from God. When civil authorities fail to execute what one believes to be the wishes or standards of God, then those civil authorities have failed to live up to the standards which justify their existence. At this point the religious believer is justified in ignoring them and taking God’s wishes into their own hands. There is no such thing as a justified civil authority independent of God and thus no valid civil laws which can excuse godless, immoral behavior.

Perhaps the most dramatic example of this sort of thinking comes from Iran where six members of a state militia were found innocent of murder by the Iranian Supreme Court because the six human beings they brutally killed were all regarded by the killers as “morally corrupt.”

No one denied that the killings happened; instead the killings were justified in a manner analogous to how one can justify killing someone in self-defense.

Rather than claiming that their lives were in danger, however, the killers claimed that they had the authority under Islamic law to kill people who had not been properly punished by the state for grossly immoral behavior. All of the victims suffered greatly by being stoned or drowned, and in one case an engaged couple was killed simply because they were walking together in public.

Three lower courts had originally upheld the men’s convictions, finding that a belief that someone is “morally corrupt” is insufficient grounds to justify killing a human being. The Iranian Supreme Court disagreed with the other courts and agreed with senior clerics who have argued that Muslims have a duty to enforce the moral standards handed down by God. Even Mohammad Sadegh Al-e-Eshagh, a Supreme Court judge who didn’t take part in the case and who says that killings done without a court order should be punished, was willing to agree that certain moral “offenses” can be justifiably punished by the people — offenses like adultery and insulting Muhammad.

In the final analysis, this ruling means that anyone can get away with murder by simply claiming that the victim was morally corrupt. In Iran, personal religious morality has been given precedence over neutral civil laws and standards of conduct. Under civil laws, everyone is supposed to be judged by the same neutral standards; now, everyone can be judged by the personal standards of random strangers — standards based on their own personal interpretation of their private religious beliefs.

Although the situation in Iran is extreme, it is in principle not too far different from the beliefs of many other religious believers around the world. This is, for example, the underlying principle behind attempts by Americans in various professions to avoid being held to the same standards and do the same job that others in the profession have to do. Rather than abide by neutral laws and standards of professional conduct, individual pharmacists want the authority to decide for themselves — based on their personal interpretation of private religious morality — which medications they will and will not dispense. Cab drivers want to do the same with respect to who they will and will not transport in their cabs.

This is an issue which is usually discussed in the context of church/state separation, but it’s one which cuts right to the heart of whether church and state should even be separated. What it comes down to is whether civil society will be governed by neutral, secular laws created by the people based upon their own determination of what is and is not right, or will society be governed by the interpretations of allegedly divine revelations by ecclesiastical leaders — or even worse, by the personal interpretations by every religious individual acting on their own?

This isn’t simply a question of accommodation, which involves simply making it easier for religious individuals to follow their religion and conscience. You accommodate a person’s religious needs by adapting procedures to work around those needs, but when you exempt them from having to do the very basic requirements of a job you go beyond mere accommodation. At this point, you enter the same realm which the Iranian Supreme Court has already deeply penetrated: you abandon neutral, secular standards of conduct applicable to everyone in favor of personal religious standards adopted and interpreted by each individual at will.

This is incompatible with a multi-faith, multicultural, civil society. Such a society requires secular standards that apply equally to all people in all situations — that’s what it means to be a nation of laws rather than of men. The rule of law and justice depends upon publicly disclosed, publicly debated, and publicly decided standards rather than the arbitrary whims, beliefs, or faiths of individuals who happen to occupy positions of power and authority. We should expect doctors, pharmacists, cab drivers, and other licensed professionals to treat us according to independent, public standards — not arbitrary, personal religious standards. We should expect the state to deliver justice in a neutral, secular manner — not protect those who seek to enforce a private vision of godly conduct on us.

Learn The Important Tips To Grant Bail To Bail Bond Customers

If you or your family member, relative etc. requires bail bond, then you have to understand the procedure thoroughly. It is good to have a rough estimation on how much the bond will cost. The bail hotline has made things simpler by providing some useful bail bond tips to the people in need.

Initial steps you must do to protect the case

If the officers process your loved ones, then they must immediately inform the family members of the defendant. The family members can then consult a local bail agency. It is convenient to find a reputed and trustworthy agency online.

Learn about the services they offer and also about their prices. There are many states that have not approved for the commercialized bail bonds. You will gradually learn about such regulations as you proceed ahead with this procedure.

How to gain the information about the agency

It is wise to gain as much information as possible over the telephonic conversation. Ask them about the premium rates and other knowledgeable stuff. Make sure that you pass this information accurately to the individual, who is cosigning the bond.

If there are not enough bond agencies in your locality or the services that you have hired is already handling hundreds of cases, then you might have to wait. Hence, it is important to begin with the procedure at the earliest. To know more about the procedure, visit

There are agencies and bondsmen who do not issue bonds for all the crimes. The services they provide vary from state to state. However, more than 90% of them handle most misdemeanors. You must go with an experienced professional to avoid any kind of inconvenience at a later stage.

Every bail bond agency has a specific application procedure to follow. You must understand all the terms and conditions of application before proceeding ahead.  The agency might ask several questions about the family member you intend to get out of the jail. Do not hesitate to provide them all the necessary details.

The questionnaire will surely increase the chances of granting bail. Most of the companies have their bail hotline available 24/7 and 365 days a year. This is to ensure that any sort of requests or doubts are clarified anytime and anywhere.

In case, the family member you wish to grant bail for is rearrested for the same or different crime, then you have to pay the premiums again. However, different companies have different rules and regulations. Therefore, you must consult your company about this issue before proceeding ahead.

It is better not to talk to other inmates in the jail. You must be polite and calm with rest of the members but never discuss about your case with them. If the jailer has heard any of your strategy, then it would not be good for you. All you could do is have patience and wait for the bail bonds.

You must remember that all the calls made from the jail are recorded by professionals. While talking to the loved ones, ensure that you choose the words wisely.

Job Description of a Criminal Law Paralegal

Criminal law paralegals work alongside lawyers to assist in the various tasks commonly handled by law firms. While working as a paralegal takes significantly less preparation than law school, paralegals can do everything a lawyer can do except for give legal advice, present cases in court, set fees and take cases.

Criminal law paralegals work alongside lawyers to promote justice in criminal cases.

Education and Certification

  • Most paralegals either have an associate degree in paralegal studies or a bachelor’s degree (in any field) and a paralegal certificate. While criminal law paralegals are not required to have any type of certification, becoming certified often increases a paralegal’s ability to compete for the most desirable jobs. Certification is available through the following three organizations: the National Association of Legal Assistants, the National Federation of Paralegal Associations and the American Alliance of Paralegals. Certifications for individuals who already have a bachelor’s degree are available through a wide variety of colleges and paralegal schools. In some cases, a paralegal with experience may become certified simply by taking a board-certified test.


  • Criminal law paralegals differ from typical paralegals in that they work specifically with the details of criminal cases instead of the broader aspects of the law. For a paralegal working in criminal law, these include things like interviewing witnesses, doing research for a case, putting together documents, organizing key evidence for trial and helping a lawyer prepare for a case. According to, they must understand “the basic classification of crimes, as well as the legal procedures surrounding search and seizure, arrest, bail and probation.” They also perform secretarial work, including tasks like answering the phone, making phone calls, keeping track of paperwork and entering data into the computer. A new paralegal is often assigned mostly administrative work until he becomes more experienced.


  • Criminal law paralegals spend most of their time working in the office at a law firm. However, they are sometimes asked to travel or assist a lawyer while in court. They generally work 40 hours a week during office hours, although they may sometimes be asked to work overtime or unusual hours when a court case necessitates it.


  • In 2010, the Bureau of Labor Statistics projected a 28 percent increase in the need for paralegals from 2008 to 2018. This is likely because most law offices are seeking to assign as many tasks as possible to paralegals to avoid hiring more lawyers than necessary. As this shift continues, many offices will seek to replace lawyer positions with more paralegals.


  • As of May 2008, paralegals in the United States earned an average salary of $46,120, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reports. However, the highest paid paralegals earned salaries in the range of $73,000. Most paralegal jobs come with a full benefits package.

Simple Tips When It Comes to Criminal Law

No one wants to be accused of a crime, but what would you do if that ever happens to you or a loved one? Would you know how to handle a situation like that? That is why knowing something about criminal law might come in handy.

It might be you or or a loved one who could be accused of doing something criminal. The important thing is that you should know what to do. You should be able to handle it or things can go from bad to worse in a very short period.

What You Should Do

If a loved one has been accused of a crime, the first thing to do is to get in touch with a criminal lawyer right away. They would be able to tell you in greater detail the actions that have to be taken to help ensure that your loved one’s rights are not violated.

Get Vital Information Right Away

Information is vital at this stage and situation. You should find out why your loved is being held and where. You must know the police agency that is holding them, the name of the law enforcers involved, what the case is. Ask these details from the law enforcers and not from your loved one as your conversation might be recorded and that can be used as evidence against them.

Remaining Silent is Important

Tell your loved one that it is important that they should remain silent and that they do not say anything at this point. When you speak with the law enforcers, you should tell them that your loved one will not make any statements and that they should wait for the arrival of the attorney. Take note of the time of your conversation.

Documentation of Events

It is important that you take note of everything that is happening right from the moment that you learn of the arrest. Take note of the time that events occur as well. Doing this could help the attorney to make the defense.

The Importance of a Good Lawyer

We could not overemphasize the importance of a good lawyer at this point. You should find someone who is experienced and well-versed when it comes to criminal law. If you can find someone who has dealt with the kind of case that your loved one has then that would even be better.

Support is Important

At this stage your support and help could be very vital for your loved one. You must show them that you will be there for them no matter what. They must understand that you will be ready to deal with any kind of problem that might arise and that you are not judging them because of what has happened.

Facing criminal charges isn’t something that we would really want but when it happens to us or to our loved ones then we have to be ready. It helps to know a thing or two about criminal law because that might mean your loved one being acquitted.

The Effects of Criminal Law on Our Lives

In our private lives, the area of law we will experience the most, either directly or indirectly would have to be the criminal law.  Not necessarily through contravening its principals, the individual citizen will more commonly encounter its breadth in the course of their everyday lives, considering as a factor the legal ramifications of any desired conduct or decision in the decision making process.  For most of us, we tend to live our lives within these predetermined boundaries with no second thought or question as to the morality of the prohibited option nor the moral authority behind it.  In this article, it is proposed to look at the nature and scope of the criminal law in our society, and to discuss whether as an entity it is too intrusive, or whether it is naturally a required aspect of regulating society.

It is often said academically that the citizen enjoys freedom to act as he wishes in his life, subject to the regulatory provisions of the criminal law and the criminal justice system.  It is thought that as citizens of a particular country, largely at freedom to choose where we live in the world, we impliedly accept the authority of the relevant legal provisions which, for the most part, regulate on a moral level.  Of course there are exceptions, i.e. criminal laws of a regulatory or secondary nature which do not directly bear any moral message, such as speeding limits or parking restrictions.  So, then, to what extent does the criminal law reflect morality, and further from what source is this morality derived?

The criminal law is said to operate in mind of the public good, and the benefit of society.  It could, therefore, be argued to be crossing the boundaries into serious restrictions on liberty when it regulates personal conduct like drug use which may not have any wider impact than on that of the person indulging accordingly.  Why should the criminal law impose restrictions on what a person can do with his or her own body?  Surely our own freewill is a good enough justification for acting outwith the scope of the law in these types of scenario?

Furthermore an interesting area of the criminal law is potential liability for omissions.  In this sense, the citizen can actually be punished without acting at all in a specific way.  This takes the criminal law beyond a regulatory framework for the public good into an actual coercive force to make people positively act in a certain way.  For example, in some jurisdictions there is a legal duty to report a road traffic accident.  This means a citizen who is aware of the occurrence of such will have committed a criminal offence where he does not act in the prescribed manner.  Again, this is surely affording a broad scope to the criminal law, which may be seen by some as intruding on the fundamental freedoms and values upon which most modern nations were built.

It is interesting to consider the real impact of the criminal law, and the sheer breadth of conduct it regulates.  From the objectively morally wrong to the less obvious cases of imposition of liability, the criminal law places severe restrictions on the general principal of absolute liberty, which is clearly the subject of much academic and philosophical debate.


Types of Criminal Law Cases

criminal law attorney central islip
Robbery Crimes in New York:
Robbery is the wrongdoing of unlawfully taking someone else property by the utilization of energy, lying or misdirection. This offense is intense, and on the off chance that you have been captured, you could be confronting extreme punishments. Contingent upon the circumstances of your case, you might either be accused of an offense or a crime and you may be compelled to serve years in jail and pay heavy fines. Criminal feelings might be destroying, so you have to quickly hold the representation of a comprehension lawyer from the Law Office of Shawn Kassman immediately. By working with a criminal guard lawyer from the firm, you may have the capacity to have your charges lessened or rejected. – Criminal Law Attorney Central Islip
In the state of New York, there are various sorts of burglary. Various main components could figure out what accurate sentencing you may be presented with in the event that you are sentenced, and a lawyer from the Law Office of Shawn Kassman can help make an one of a kind safeguard. In the event that you are confronting any of the accompanying charges, contact the firm now!
Shoplifting is the wrongdoing of taking stock from a store or messing with the cost of an item. On the off chance that you are intentionally changing the cost of a thing or purposely covering merchandise from a store that are esteemed at short of what $1,000, you may be accused of this offense.
Petit Larceny:
This wrongdoing is off and on again alluded to as an unimportant burglary and includes the taking of a thing esteemed at short of what $1,000. Dissimilar to shoplifting, petit burglary does not so much need to happen in a store yet can relate to merchandise taken from an individual or their property.
Wholesale fraud:
Taking someone else personality is a robbery wrongdoing and additionally may be viewed as a cubicle wrongdoing. This type of duplicity utilization someone else name, Social Security number, financial balance data or other particular data to take cash or possessions from the victimized person. – Criminal Law Attorney Central Islip
Amazing Larceny:
Amazing burglary is a lawful offense, deserving of jail sentencing and soak fines. Any thing taken that is esteemed over $1,000 might be viewed as amazing robbery. Regular sorts of amazing robbery incorporate terrific burglary auto or fantastic robbery gun.
Any constrained and unlawful entrance into a structure with the plan to perpetrate a wrongdoing once inside the structure, home, building or office is considered theft. This wrongdoing is named first degree, second degree or third degree, all of which are intense offenses. – Criminal Law Attorney Central Islip
If you have Criminal Law Attorney Central Islip related questions, please call criminal defense attorney Shawn Kassman or a member of his legal team at 631-232-9479 (toll-free 888-545-2944) or fill out our online intake form. We are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and defend clients located in Central Islip (main office location), Holtsville (office location), Bayshore, Brentwood, Oakdale, Sayville, Port Jefferson and Riverhead and both Suffolk and Nassau counties. Our Central Islip law offices are conveniently located down the street from the courthouse and we can assist you with your criminal defense during your time of need.
Proudly Serving
Central Islip, Suffolk County, Hauppauge and many more.

How to Pay for Law School

You did it! You have been accepted to law school. But the stress is just beginning. Finding the funds to pay for law school is a burdensome and often overwhelming task. Therefore, it is recommended to gather as much financial information as you can to help you make intelligent decisions about how you will pay for your graduate education. Follow these simple steps to ensure you exhaust the funding options available to you.


  1. Research the cost of the law school you wish to attend. Include both tuition and anticipated book expenditures.
  2. Research the cost of living for the area in which you will live while attending law school.
  3. Review your current finances and determine how much you can comfortably contribute to fund your law school education.
  4. Prepare a reasonable budget that takes into account the figures you obtained in steps 1 through 3.
  5. Apply for scholarships or grants to aid your law school funding.
  6. Ask your law school about federal work-study programs that enable you to work part-time to help finance your education.
  7. Consider federal and private student loans to aid in the financial burden of attending law school.

How to File Criminal Charges for Perjury

Perjury is deliberately lying in a judicial proceeding.
Perjury is a criminal offense committed by a person who, having been sworn to tell the truth in a matter pending in a court of justice, willfully and deliberately lies. To constitute perjury, a statement must be made under oath in a judicial proceeding and be material to the issue being tried. If a witness makes a misstatement unintentionally or a mistake is made, it is not considered perjury.


  1. Verify the suspect was under oath in an official court proceeding and obtain a recording or certified transcript of the proceeding if available. A transcript would be available from a court reporter and a recording would be available from the judge or official court bailiff.
  2. Present evidence to the appropriate law enforcement agency. If the matter involves a federal court, contact the agency most closely related to the issue. For example the Internal Revenue Service deals with issues regarding lying about taxes. Refer a state matter to the attorney general. Refer a city or county matter to the local police department or district attorney’s office.
  3. Identify the parties, statement and any issues in question. Answer any questions posed by law enforcement. Be prepared to give a sworn statement regarding your knowledge of events and provide contact information.
  4. Request law enforcement refer the case to the proper county, state or federal attorney’s office to file charges. Individuals cannot file charges, only make criminal complaints. Prosecutors will review the information on a case by case basis to see if it meets the elements of the crime and make a filing decision.
  5. Follow up on the case. If you have not received any communication regarding the case, contact the law enforcement agency or prosecutor’s office for information. More investigation may be necessary, or the reviewing attorney may ultimately decide there is not enough evidence to proceed

Choosing a Criminal Law Firm

Any criminal law firm can handle smooth transitions and legal issues on all criminal related negotiations, but choosing the right company and solicitor can make all the difference in having a legal situation swing in your favor. If your charges are severe, the very least an experienced criminal law solicitor can do is to negotiate for the charges to be reduced. If you are charged with a criminal offense make sure you do not panic and choose the first criminal law firm that makes you inspiring promises. Take the time to check and choose carefully. Choosing the right firm will ensure the best outcome for your case.

The first thing to do when choosing a criminal law firm or solicitor is make sure that you check up on their credentials and find out their success rate on cases. A seasoned criminal solicitor should have an excellent track record and will possess client references. Ask to see their qualifications and references, discuss with them their rates, and ask them how much time will be dedicated to your case. Find out what their experience level is and their proposed plan of action. They should be able to discuss the facts of your case and what additional services they think you may require, and will be able to advise you on the best approach to take. Make sure you gel with your solicitor and feel comfortable in their presence. You should feel that they have your best interests in mind.

With regards to payment, if you find yourself in a difficult financial situation, find out if there are any government subsidies to help you pay the fees for your solicitor. Your solicitor will be able to advise you in this. Ask your solicitor for a retainer agreement so you have a better understanding of the up-front costs you will be required to meet. Try to generate or find the funds for hiring the best solicitor possible, as it will make a significant difference to your case.

If you are found guilty of a criminal offense, your choice of criminal law firm and criminal solicitor is paramount in ensuring you receive the best defense and outcome. Depending on how severe your charges are, you may potentially be facing jail time, significant fines and may lose assets. An experienced criminal defense solicitor with a successful track record in litigation and extensive court experience could save you years of grief.

Additionally it is always a good idea to choose a criminal solicitor that has a good rapport with the prosecuting attorney. If there is good communication between the solicitors it will help negotiations to run more smoothly.

A good criminal law firm will have a team of solicitors that are experienced within a variety of different criminal laws. They will normally have solicitors who practice in specialized fields, such as traffic lawyers, sex offence lawyers, and drug offence solicitors. Make sure you find out which field your solicitor is more experienced in and make sure you choose one with the most relevant experience to your case.

Find A Trustworthy Lawyer That Can Help You

How can anyone know how to search for a lawyer? Knowing which lawyers are trustworthy and which should be avoided is quite a chore. Use the information included here to move forward with your legal woes.

One thing that is very important when selecting a lawyer is ease of access. Many people complain about not having a lawyer who is easily reachable. You shouldn’t get stuck wondering what’s going on with your case just because you have a lawyer that’s on vacation.

Prior to your meeting with prospective lawyers, identify your ultimate objective. You should first find out if a lawyer is even necessary. Divorces, criminal charges or being part of a lawsuit mean you do. While your case may not fall into any of these fields, you may still need a lawyer.

While the high cost associated with the idea of hiring a specialist lawyer may phase you, the fact is that it will often cost you less in the end. The truth is that general practitioners will have to do lots more research than a specialist, which ends up costing you lots of money.

Whenever you’re dealing with real estate legal issues, hire a lawyer who only does real estate. They will be more equipped to deal with your case quickly and will often result in a better outcome.

Heed your lawyer’s advice, but remember that he or she is your employee. Speak up if there is something your lawyer wants or says that makes you uncomfortable. They want to help you, so speak up.

Before spending hours researching yourself, check with people you know and trust. There could easily be a reputable and fair attorney that has helped one of your friends or family members in the past. This can pay a lot of benefits down the road for you and reduces your work.

Use your professional network to find a reliable business lawyer. These companies provide services to some top legal players, so that may help you locate some good lawyers. For example, suppose you need a lawyer to help you with articles of incorporation for your small business. A financial professional may be able to help you with that. The people in business who regularly deal with the law likely have a more informed opinion about lawyers than other people would.

Find the lawyer who is best for your situation is likely to take some time. Nonetheless, it is preferable to search carefully and find the right lawyer instead of just picking one at random. Use the tips above to assist you with locating a good lawyer who has your interests in mind.

Australian Criminal Law Basics

Criminal law in Australia was originally received from the English common law. Australian courts today have modified some parts of the common law to fit the clauses of the government, but the bulk of the law is based on the common one. Reformation plans are in progress to achieve greater consistency between the states, through the Model Criminal Code. The variation of the law between regions is as stated below.

Federal: The Commonwealth is in transition from the common law model to the code model. However, it has its own criminal jurisdiction against federal offences. The powers of the states have been increasingly put to use in the recent decades, regarding criminal law. For example, the Human Rights Act of 1994 overrode the sodomy laws contained in the criminal code of Tasmania.

New South Wales: Common law and the statutory provisions in the Crime Act 1900 form the basis of the criminal offences under New South Wales law. Maximum penalties for larceny are found in the Crimes Act 1900, but the definition of larceny is a matter of the common law. This one of the many instances shows that the combined approach is similar to that of England.

Victoria: Most crimes in the Victorian Jurisdiction are codified in the Crimes Act 1958. A few of them also fall under the common law provisions for criminal conduct within Victoria.

Queensland: This region follows the Criminal Code Act 1899. Sir Samuel Walker Griffith, then chief justice of the Supreme Court of Queensland formulated the Criminal Code Act. Griffith borrowed large elements of the act from the Italian Penal Code 1889, and the New York Penal Code 1881. He described the Italian Penal Code as the most complete and perfect penal code in existence in many respects. Griffith himself translated it. The Griffith Code, as it was called, was later adopted in other parts of the Commonwealth of Nations, albeit with some changes. An important attribute of the Criminal Code is the formal absence of the common law element of mens rea (Latin for guilty mind). The mental element exclusion though involves a very few exceptions, which includes murder.

South Australia: Most crimes in South Australia are codified in the Criminal Law Consolidation Act 1935 (SA). There are also a number of common law provisions for criminal conduct in South Australia, quite like Victoria.

Tasmania: The criminal law structure in Tasmania is quite similar to that of Queensland and Western Australia. The serious criminal offences are set in a single piece of legislation, the Criminal Code Act 1924. The mens rea too is located under section 13 of the Code. This overrules involuntary human actions like insanity, intoxication, instance etc. The Firearms Act, the Police Offences Act, the Road Safety Act are some among the many acts that are considered a part of criminal offences.

Western Australia: The Criminal Code here is substantially based on that of Queensland.

Northern Territory: This region also is heavily based on the Acts like that in Queensland and WA. The drafting of the NT Criminal Code Act 1983 reflected aspects of both the QLD and WA Criminal Codes.

What Is The Difference Between A Civil Law and Criminal Law

Numerous individuals don’t understand the contrast between civil and criminal law, yet various standards set the two terms separated. Along these lines, let us understand the difference between the both:
In civil law, a private person, for example, an individual or a company indexes the claim and is known as the offended party. In criminal law, the legislature dependably records the grumbling and is alluded to as an indictment.
There are some major differences between civil & criminal law like in a civil case, the private privileges of people, organizations and governments are in debate. The point when the civil movement includes harm, it is known as a tort, for example is the situation with an individual damage claim. In a criminal matter, unique is indicted by the administration for perpetrating an enactment that is against the laws of the state or social order in general, for example, driving while affected by medications or liquor, thievery or assault.
A respondent in a criminal case is qualified for a lawyer, and in the event that he can’t bear the cost of one, the state or national government must give representation. In a civil case, the respondent is not given a lawyer and must pay for one or he can decide to protect himself. On account of a car crash, if a civil litigant has protection, his protection transporter may have an obligation to guard him, based upon the terms of the security contract.
Load of Proof
The load of confirmation in a criminal court is past a sensible mistrust. This suggests that there could be probably in the brain of a sensible person that the respondent is blameworthy €” there can at present be mistrust, however, just that no sensible mistrust is conceivable, taking into account the proof displayed. The trouble of verification in a civil trial is the dominance of the confirmation, a much lesser load than past sensible mistrust. Dominance of the confirmation implies that it is almost certainly that the litigant is subject. This difference in trouble of confirmation exists because civil risk is recognized less reprehensible, and the disciplines are less serious than in criminal law.
Jury Trial
Both civil and criminal litigants are qualified for a jury trial; nonetheless, the feeling of a jury could be unanimous in a civil case, contingent on the laws of a particular state, however, in the criminal equity framework, the jury must concur unanimously before a litigant might be declared guilty a wrongdoing.
Sacred Protections
Litigants in criminal movements are managed sure Constitutional assurances that are not accessible to respondents in civil cases. These incorporate security against unlawful hunts and seizures, the right to remain noiseless, and flexibility from twofold peril.
A litigant losing a civil suit repays the offended party fiscally for the harms he has initiated €” no prison time is included. In the event that the litigant is sentenced in criminal court, the discipline is either correctional facility time or detainment, a fine paid to the administration, or in compelling cases, execution.

How to Brief a Case for Law School

Briefing cases in law school is an essential process in obtaining a legal education. In law school, you are not given text books to study. You are given case books that are filled with appellate court legal opinions or case law. It is your job to digest and dissect the cases into case briefs and to essentially write your own text book.


  1. When briefing cases, understand the Socratic method of teaching. Your law professors will call upon students in class to question your knowledge of cases and to challenge your position on various issues. How you respond will depend on how well prepared you are to discuss the facts and the law of each case. It is therefore critical that you are organized and thorough in your understanding of the cases.
  2. Start with the case name and citation at the top. Include parallel cites to official reporters and West reporters.
  3. The first section is the case holding. The holding of the case are all necessary conclusions the court reached in disposing the case. Be careful not to confuse the holding with dicta. Dicta are ancillary conclusions or statements of law that are illustrative but not necessary for the disposition of the case and are not given precedential weight. If the case contains significant dicta on an important unanswered question of law, then that should be separately discussed. Some case brief formats include an issues section, but the issues are basically the holding in query format and is repetitive in my opinion.
  4. The second section is the procedural posture of the case. The procedural posture or history of the case is a summary of the results of the trial court and the rulings of any intermediate appellate courts, as well as any remand. Also include the result of the case you are briefing to provide a discussion of the prevailing parties, judgments and appellants.
  5. The third section is the facts of the case. Summarize the facts that are necessary to support the case holding. Include the names of the parties instead of referring to the parties as plaintiff and defendant.
  6. The fourth section is the rule of law. Cite and quote the statutes, regulations, rules, ordinances and cases that the court relied upon in reaching its holding.
  7. The last section is the court’s analysis. Describe the court’s reasoning in how it reached its holding, including the application of the case facts to the law. Also include a brief summary of any concurring or dissenting opinions, including the name of the judge and a brief summary of the opinion.
  8. Strive to keep your brief as succinct as possible so that you are able to focus on the pertinent portions of the case. This will promote comprehension and retention to better enable you to prepare for classes and exams. Also, don’t hesitate to alter the formula or the order of categories to better suit your learning preferences. Remember that the brief is your learning tool which is basically an outline and summary of court opinions.

Criminal Law Resources in the Biggest City of Texas

Criminal law resources in the biggest city of Texas are plenty. Houston criminal attorney resources are hired by the people of the state. These lawyers are extremely skill full and they are very knowledgeable. They known the ins and the outs of the legal profession and they are consulted by the people, the government and the courts.

Houston criminal attorneys entail following key features and characteristics within their ranks;

Criminal law is not like other laws. When a criminal offence occurs the state gets involved and it generally affects the peace and the tranquility of the society.

Criminal acts are also not covered under the limitation act and hence, people with criminal offences can be tried at any time during their lives and afterwards.

The case is pleaded in between the state and the accused. The victim or the aggrieved party can also participate in the case with the state or the government. It happens so that police generally registers the case when a criminal act is performed. After registration the case is investigated by the police. Later on the case is transferred to the public prosecutor of the state whose office takes the lead and pleads the case on the behalf of the state government. The accused usually hires his or her own attorney, if he is unable to do so the state provides the attorney to the accused.

The victim may also hire a lawyer in this respect. The victims lawyer works with the states lawyers to prosecute the accused. The city of Houston house quality professionals. They are utilized by the accused and the victim to the fullest.

Criminal law is a special field which requires skills and experience. Serious investigative skills are also required from time to time by the lawyer. These skills are hard to perfect and require time and effort on the part of the lawyer and the professional.

Houston criminal defense lawyer are hired by the accused. The objective of the defense always is to prove innocence. If innocence can not be proved than the lawyer goes for bargaining with the state and makes sure that minimum sentence is performed by the client.

These days quality online resources are also used in getting criminal advices. These resrouces are also provided to the client free of charge. It happens so that one can register with a legal online portal or social media. He or she can make a topic for discussion and the lawyers and the learned legal people discuss amongst themselves for the case.

The merits and the demerits of the case are discussed and possible options are given to the client.

Online payment services can also be used in this respect and second opinion can also be used by the client to the fullest. The best thing about the online legal help is that no names are shown.

Adultery Criminal Laws and Their Effects

Adultery is also known as philandery or infidelity is basically a form of extramarital sex. Originally it referred to sex between a married woman and another person other than her spouse. Illegal in some countries, its difference from rape is that while rape involves use of force; adultery is voluntary. Having a Judeo-Christian origin, the concept is present in almost all religious factions of the world.

Committing adultery brings up several consequences like an enraged spouse at home and possible dissolution of the family and supportive life. Despite the fact that such family and supportive life was built up with a lot of efforts on part of the couple involved, adultery can disrupt their life. On the other hand adultery criminal laws in force in the country where it is committed can bring up serious consequences for the offender. In any case it could constitute pertinent grounds for fault based divorce.

Legal consequences of adultery that is considered a criminal act, does not end with divorce alone. It could result in a civil lawsuit against the spouse committing adultery. Besides the emotional trauma as well as the fallout faced by the subjects of adultery and consequential criminal laws, they could even land up in jail serving punishment on criminal charges.

Scenario is however changing pretty rapidly. Only few states in United States have adultery statute in place. Many states on the other hand abolished the statute altogether. Of course the states like Florida are an exception that still considers the adulterer as criminal. Open adultery is still a punishable criminal offence in Florida . Unique feature of adultery criminal laws in Florida is that even though only one of the persons involved in adultery is married, both can be charged with criminal offences of open adultery.

Thus, in Florida a person guilty of open adultery can face imprisonment up to 60 days and fines up to $500. In addition such person will also have a criminal record adding insult to injuries. In result it would be difficult getting jobs, loans, and other such financial and career benefits.

People charged with commitment of adultery should consult an efficient and reputable criminal lawyer to get appropriate advice. Such lawyer would be the right person for protecting the civil rights of the client.

Employment Law and Equal Pay Act

The Industrial Revolution has brought radical changes in the working place. This historical phenomenon swept much of the world, especially Europe where it started and the Americas. One radical change it brought to the working place is the deterioration of working conditions as the number of workers or employees rose meteorically. In this regard, the government would need to pass laws protecting the rights of workers. These protective laws paved the way for the creation of modern employment law in the United States.

What is Employment Law?

The Employment Law protects employees or workers from any kind of mistreatment on the workplace. The poor working conditions that resulted from Industrial Revolution led to the creation of laws establishing fair wages, limiting the number of working hours in a week and prohibiting child labor. Other labor related laws also include laws regulating the cleanliness of the workplace, protection of employees from any kind of hazardous accidents.

Employment Laws have been passed standardizing the provision of benefits by the employers for the employees. Employment Law includes health insurance that benefits workers if medical problems arise due to poor work condition or unsanitary workplace. In addition, Employment Law also covers protection against discrimination in the workplace based on religion, race, gender and other factors.

Let us focus more on employment discrimination laws that protect employees from discrimination in the workplace. The US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforces several employment discrimination laws that protect employees from compensation discrimination. One of these laws is the Equal Pay Act of 1963. The passage of this law is milestone in labor history as it ensures that there shall be no wage discrimination based on sex in the workplace.

The Equal Pay Act

As stated above, this law requires that no wage discrimination shall take place based on gender. This law requires that men and women be given equal wage for the same work rendered in the same workplace. The jobs need not to be the same, but they must be essentially equal.

Further, the EPA states that it is not the job titles that matter in determining whether jobs are substantially equal but the job content. Men and women alike are protected by EPA as it prohibits unequal wages to both genders that perform a job that requires substantially equal amount of work, skill and responsibility in the same workplace and same working conditions. Pay differentials are only allowed when they are based on merit, seniority, quantity or quality of production or other factors than gender.

Employees expect that their employers will adhere to the Employment Laws discussed above. Moreover, basic standards of fairness in terms of employment decisions shall be observed in the workplace, like equal page for equal job for both sexes. Sometimes, however, these labor laws are not adhered to by employers. If you are a victim of unfair labor practice, do not hesitate to fight for your rights. An experienced civil rights lawyer or employment lawyer might help you build a strong case against your abusive employer.

How to Survive as a 1L Law School Student

If you're in law school and you don't know what the term “1L” means, it is clear that you're a 1L student. The term “1L” is used to refer to first-year students. Second-year students are referred to as “2L,” and third-year students are referred to as “3L.” In virtually every way, your 1L year will be the hardest one. The first year's classes are difficult, it's tough to acclimate yourself quickly enough to keep your head above water, and most people find the Socratic method intimidating–especially at first. Luckily, there are certain things that you can do to make sure that you not only survive your 1L year of law school, but actually thrive.


  1. Be prepared. Believe it or not, some 1L students don't realize that there are reading assignments due at the first class meeting. Few things are more embarrassing than being called on to recite a case in your very first law school class and having to publicly announce that you're unprepared. You should try to have the first several weeks of reading assignments done before the first class meeting. Not only will this help keep you up to speed, but it will also give you more time to outline and study late in the term.
  2. Brief every case your 1L year. Many law school students (especially 2L and 3L students) will tell you that briefing is a waste of time and will advise you to purchase canned briefs. Part of succeeding in law school, though, is developing an analytical model for breaking cases down quickly into their component parts (Facts, Procedure, Law, Reasoning, and Holding). 2L and 3L students have often already done this, so briefing isn't as important for them. But for a 1L student, briefing cases is imperative. You'll be thankful for this advice when you get your 1L course grades.
  3. Make your own outlines. Most law school classes don't come with traditional textbooks, they come with casebooks. Throughout each class, you should be extracting law from the cases you read and integrating that law and your professor's lectures into a comprehensive outline. It is from this outline that you will study for your 1L exams. Don't use outlines produced by others, especially from classes with different professors. Making your own outlines is a great way to study and is the only way to make sure you're studying the right material.
  4. Actively participate in class. Participating in class is a great way to wrestle with the complex ideas that you'll be trying to master in your 1L classes. Participation is also a good strategy for getting to know your professors and other students. In addition, participating by raising your hand to volunteer when you're prepared will often save you from being called on when you're not as prepared.
  5. Study often and early. Students who do well in law school begin their outlines by about the third or fourth class session (at the latest) and study many hours each week for every hour they actually spend in class. A good ballpark figure is that you should spend at least 2 to 3 hours studying each week for every credit you're taking. So, if you're taking 15 credits in your 1L year, you should spend 30-45 hours studying outside of class each week. Although this might seem excessive, it's how book awards (the awards given to the person with the top grade in each class) are won.

Criminal Law Attorney Central Islip

criminal law attorney central islip
Robbery Crimes in New York:
Robbery is the wrongdoing of unlawfully taking someone else property by the utilization of energy, lying or misdirection. This offense is intense, and on the off chance that you have been captured, you could be confronting extreme punishments. Contingent upon the circumstances of your case, you might either be accused of an offense or a crime and you may be compelled to serve years in jail and pay heavy fines. Criminal feelings might be destroying, so you have to quickly hold the representation of a comprehension lawyer from the Law Office of Shawn Kassman immediately. By working with a criminal guard lawyer from the firm, you may have the capacity to have your charges lessened or rejected. – Criminal Law Attorney Central Islip
In the state of New York, there are various sorts of burglary. Various main components could figure out what accurate sentencing you may be presented with in the event that you are sentenced, and a lawyer from the Law Office of Shawn Kassman can help make an one of a kind safeguard. In the event that you are confronting any of the accompanying charges, contact the firm now!
Shoplifting is the wrongdoing of taking stock from a store or messing with the cost of an item. On the off chance that you are intentionally changing the cost of a thing or purposely covering merchandise from a store that are esteemed at short of what $1,000, you may be accused of this offense.
Petit Larceny:
This wrongdoing is off and on again alluded to as an unimportant burglary and includes the taking of a thing esteemed at short of what $1,000. Dissimilar to shoplifting, petit burglary does not so much need to happen in a store yet can relate to merchandise taken from an individual or their property.
Wholesale fraud:
Taking someone else personality is a robbery wrongdoing and additionally may be viewed as a cubicle wrongdoing. This type of duplicity utilization someone else name, Social Security number, financial balance data or other particular data to take cash or possessions from the victimized person. – Criminal Law Attorney Central Islip
Amazing Larceny:
Amazing burglary is a lawful offense, deserving of jail sentencing and soak fines. Any thing taken that is esteemed over $1,000 might be viewed as amazing robbery. Regular sorts of amazing robbery incorporate terrific burglary auto or fantastic robbery gun.
Any constrained and unlawful entrance into a structure with the plan to perpetrate a wrongdoing once inside the structure, home, building or office is considered theft. This wrongdoing is named first degree, second degree or third degree, all of which are intense offenses. – Criminal Law Attorney Central Islip
If you have Criminal Law Attorney Central Islip related questions, please call criminal defense attorney Shawn Kassman or a member of his legal team at 631-232-9479 (toll-free 888-545-2944) or fill out our online intake form. We are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and defend clients located in Central Islip (main office location), Holtsville (office location), Bayshore, Brentwood, Oakdale, Sayville, Port Jefferson and Riverhead and both Suffolk and Nassau counties. Our Central Islip law offices are conveniently located down the street from the courthouse and we can assist you with your criminal defense during your time of need.
Proudly Serving
Central Islip, Suffolk County, Hauppauge and many more.

A Degree in Educational Law

Like any sector, the field of education has specific legal issues. Providing services to special needs students, free speech rights, approving homeschool curricula, locker searches, cross-town busing, and affirmative action policies are just a few of the reasons why Education Law is recognized as a specific legal subfield. Currently, the legal cases and policies that shape the operation and expectations of the U.S. education system evolve daily and require knowledgeable professionals.
Since educational rights are rooted in the Constitution and state law, a degree in Education Law generally coincides with a law degree or Juris Doctorate (JD). However, Masters programs focusing on Education Law are being paired with JDs or as standalone programs. No undergraduate major exists in education law, however there are undergraduate majors that facilitate further study of education law.

History of Education Law

  • Since our nation’s inception, the government has played a role in defining the importance and nature of education. The first federal act relating to education was the Ordinance of 1785. Passed by the Continental Congress, the Ordinance set aside portions of each congressional district for schools. In 1787, Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance that became the first federal policy statement acknowledging the benefit of knowledge and education for the general welfare.

    Today, the federal basis for intrusion into matters of education is based on the Constitution. The General Welfare Clause which sates “The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defense and general Welfare of the United States” (art. I, § 8).

    However, the Tenth Amendment of the Constitution establishes the legal theory that the states are charged with providing education to its residents. It states, “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.”

    Degrees in Educational Law will focus on how to apply the law to an ever changing educational landscape.Education Law is rooted in the U.S. Constitution. A degree in this area will likely lead to law school.

Undergraduate Degrees

  • A Bachelor’s degree in Legal Studies is generally the only undergraduate major that may touch on or allow for a coursework in Education Law. Often called a Bachelor’s in Professional Studies (BPS), this course of study is designed for pre-law, paralegal studies, and other students seeking a career concentrated in the law. A quality undergraduate program should be accredited by the American Bar Association (ABA). However, this accreditation does not allow the graduate to sit for a bar examination without the requisite formal law degree.

    While Constitutional law classes will touch upon education law, there is often no concentration in Education Law at the undergraduate level. Nonetheless, a strong understanding of legal principles will benefit a Masters or law degree program in Education Law.Bachelors degrees in Legal Studies or Professional Studies will often include Education Law coursework.

Graduate Degrees

  • After years in the industry, education professionals may recognize a need for greater understanding of Education Law. In response, Nova Southeastern University developed and ABA approved Masters program in Education Law for non-lawyers. These Masters of Science in Education Law programs do not require passage of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), however, they may require taking the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE).

    Often ABA accredited, Masters programs generally involve two years of coursework. While a Masters in Education Law does not prepare one for the practice of law, it does provide in depth analysis of the legal framework that shapes education issues. As a result, these classes are generally not aimed at law students.

    Other Masters of Education, Masters of Public Administration or PhD in Higher Education can also serve to provide a great context for education law and policy. The Education Law Consortium at the University of Georgia housed at the Institute of Higher Education facilitates such diverse education programs that focus on education law without giving an express degree in this field.You don’t have to go to law school to get a degree in Education Law.

Law Degree

  • The JD is a professional doctorate needed to practice law. While concentrations are possible, most law schools offer a general course of studies and extensive listing of electives. More commonly, a student can get a dual degree program that matches the JD with an education focused Masters program. For example, Loyola University of Chicago offers a JD and a Master’s in Comparative Law and Education. This program focuses on the legal right to education and related issues.Obtaining a law degree is the biggest financial and time commitment to the field of education law.


  • Bachelors in Legal Studies
    A variety of colleges offer Bachelors in degrees that include coursework in education/constitutional law.. Hamline College, St. Paul, Minnesota offers such a program. Many other online universities also provide degrees in Legal Studies. Remember, these degrees are geared towards the future paralegal or lawyer. A specific undergraduate degree in Education Law is not available.

    Masters in Education Law
    Nova Southeastern University offers the only Masters of Science in Education Law for non-law students. This two year program is designed for the working educational professional that desires a deeper understanding of the legal framework that governs the industry.

    Law Degree, Education Law concentration
    Many law schools offer dual degrees such as a Masters of Education. Courses in education law combined with these additional majors gives a strong foundation to the future education attorney.College offers plenty of choices for students seeking a degree in education law. You just need to know where to look.

How to Get Into Law School

With early planning, you can make yourself desirable to law school admissions officers come application time. Here are a few tips to get you on the right path.


  1. Choose a major that prepares you for law school and piques the interest of admissions officers. Philosophy, politics, history and sociology are subjects that provide a good foundation for law school, but any major that emphasizes writing skills is good.
  2. Make good grades. Maintaining a high grade point average in college, especially in your major, is crucial in getting accepted into law school.
  3. Participate in extracurricular activities. Law schools claim to be looking for well-rounded students. Increase your chances of getting accepted into law school by participating and excelling in hobbies and interests outside of the academic context. Work experience is also helpful.
  4. Ace the Law School Admissions Test (LSAT). The LSAT measures your aptitude for the study of law and is considered the most important barometer of assessing future law school success. There are a variety of LSAT preparation courses that can help you prepare for this exam.
  5. Plan your attack. Research law schools that interest you and visit them. Ask about the issues that are important to you; work-study programs, availability of jobs after graduation, tuition and living expenses, etc. Find out about admission requirements to determine your chances of acceptance.
  6. Prepare an application that highlights your individual skills and merits. Pay close attention to the essay question. Don’t be shy; this is your time to shine.

A Brief Introduction Criminal Law – Aims

In the UK, as in much of the world, the idea of breaking the law is closely aligned with the idea of committing a crime. However, crimes in truth only result from breaches in criminal law, a defined and restricted area of law which is looked at further in this two part article.
Criminal law can generally be thought of as the law of the land or the law of the state. That is, it refers to the laws that the state puts down in writing, legislature, to protect itself and its citizens. As a result, a breach in criminal law will result in a case being brought by the state (in the UK, the crown prosecution) against the accused offender.
It is helpful to consider criminal law in contrast to civil law, where cases are brought by individual parties against other parties, and which is based on a common law (or case law) framework where the law is not defined in legislature but instead cases are settled in accordance with precedents set elsewhere in the judicial system.
In criminal law a breach which leads to a conviction will, generally speaking, result in a punishment for the offender. These punishments will have a number of aims including one or more of the following:
Retribution – inflicting hardship on the offender to reflect the hardship they inflicted on their victim.

Deterrence – of the offender from committing further crimes as well as other potential offenders

Incapacitation – of the offender to prevent them committing further crimes

Rehabilitation – of the offender so that they can add value to society and to prevent further crimes

Restitution – to restore the legal status of the victim, as is the aim of civil law (see below)
These aims are not mutually exclusive. Incarceration as a punishment, for example, may fulfill the first three and, depending on the nature of their time in prison, the fourth as well.
The aim of retribution for retribution’s sake is less popular now despite being key to the development of criminal law down the ages. It originated from a concept similar to restitution but with the aim of restoring a universal balance where the offender should suffer the equivalent consequences as experienced by the victim. This lead to the establishment of institutions to restore this balance, to determine, formalise and measure out the retribution rather than allow personal retributions (vendettas, revenge) within a society which may have gone beyond the scale of the original offence.
The earliest forms of criminal law therefore followed the lines of lex talionis (a punishment to fit a crime) otherwise referred to as ‘an eye for an eye’ (after a passage in the Old Testament/Torah). However, the ideas of ‘turning the other cheek’ from the New Testament and more generally that ‘two wrongs don’t make a right’ (‘an eye for an eye leaves everyone blind’) have tempered this philosophy, particularly in the west.
The similar concept of restitution is still the aim of civil law; similar except that civil law aims to restore the legal status of the ‘victim’ as if the offence hadn’t happened regardless of whether that acts as a punishment and/or deterrent and instead of aiming to restore universal balance.
The second part of this article looks at the key concepts that define a crime and criminal law including those of actus reus and mens rea. However for those looking for further advice on criminal or civil law proceedings they should seek professional advice from qualified criminal law solicitors or, for example, family law [] specialists respectively.

Definitions of Worker & Employee – Employment-law Rights


Affect who the employer is and who is responsible for one’s wage or salary, holiday pay, employer’s contribution to national insurance, pension rights, and employment protection, the legal distinction made between “employees” and “workers”, and between those and “contractors” ~one’s entitlements depend on whether in the eyes of the law one is an employee, or a worker, subcontractor, self employed contractor –or partly a freelancer.

Because of their different legal definitions an ’employee’ or a ‘worker’ in the eyes of the law may be in fact a ‘contractor’ or a ‘subcontractor’, and vice-versa -and employment through an employment agency may or may not itself fall in different category. Definitions and categories affect entitlements.

Many employees lose out on entitlements, because their legal employment category, or because who the law regards as employer, is different than they think or have been told. When one is paid to do work for another it is important to know how the employment contract is formed, and one’s employment status.

Are you liable for your income tax or must the employer deduct it and attend to it at source, what are your holiday and pension entitlements and whose responsibility are they, are you entitled to employer’s part of your national insurance contribution –who is your employer at the workplace that you work, the business you work on the premises of, or an employment agency, or is it you whose responsibility those are, in the eyes of the law?

These affect liability, vicarious liability and the statutorily implied terms of any contract -as well as various other statutory requirements ~from equal treatment to employment protection under the employment laws -many have sued and lost because the employer was not in law the sued party but another.

Often these also affect ‘pay’ (in law defined as being what is received directly or indirectly in cash or kind for work done) ~an ’employee’ gets full holiday pay, paid leave -a ‘worker’ does not.

In employment there is sometimes a company pension scheme; as the norm the employer must pay part of one’s national insurance contributions (covering, e.g., unemployment, health-care, state-pension) if one is an ’employee’; but the entitlement is partial if one is a ‘worker’, and nil if one is in law a ‘contractor’ -one’s employment status matters.

The following helps ascertain one’s employment status in law, and who in law is one’s employer.

Is one an ’employee’ or ‘self-employed contractor’? There are three tests that are applied to the question:-

The first is the ‘Control Test’ and is based on this that if the employer controls the job to be done but not how it is done than the person doing the job is an employee; but this test would not be satisfactory, because also to an employee with specialist knowledge, e.g. a company nurse, the employer would not tell how to do the job.

The second, ‘Organisational Integration Test’, seeks to ascertain whether the person paid is an integral part of the business: an anaesthetist was not a self-employed contractor in Cassidy -v- The Ministry of Pensions 1961 ~he was a resident of the hospital -an employee.

But this did not suffice: drivers who were paid for an agreed minimum number of jobs per year and had to wear company uniforms as well as to have the company colours on their lorries and who could not work for the competition without the employer’s permission, but who could choose to do extra work and decided their own routes and used their own lorries and could use at their pleasure substitute drivers, in Ready Mixed Concrete -v- The Ministry of Pensions 1968 were self-employed contractors, not employees.

There is a third, the ‘Multiple Test’ to be applied: ‘one is an employee if.. provides work or service for remuneration.. the business has some degree of control.. without any terms contrary to the employment relationship.’

This is the consideration in the case of those engaged or introduced by employment agencies:-

Who is the employer? Is one, as a specific individual, under the direct supervision and control of the business? If so, one is an employee of the client business -where one works…

Does the business where one works pay that agency and that agency itself pay one? If so, one is not an employee of the client business, but may be an employee or worker of that agency itself -agency staff.

Employees normally receive holiday pay, self employed contractors do not ~but what about the ‘worker’-the casual worker who is not in self employment and yet is also not a regular employee?

Is one an ’employee’ or ‘worker’? There is a different ‘worker’ category for casual workers which was created under the Employment Rights Act 1996 s.230 (3) to deal with this question.

If a casual worker is genuinely on an ad hoc basis employed, that casual worker is, in law, an employee while he is employed, and for the period/s of such employment has employment rights -e.g., to receive wages and holiday pay.

A ‘subcontractor’ normally would be in the category either of employee or of worker on the same basis, but instead of the business where the sub contractor works, of the self employed contractor who engaged the sub contractor.

If there is a dispute about whether a contractor engaged a subcontractor as a self employed person, then the same three tests above are applied to ascertain the employment status of that subcontractor in relation to that contractor.

If that subcontractor receives a wage and is not self-employed in relation to that contractor, then if the subcontractor works regularly for that contractor he is an employee of that contractor, and if he works casually for that contractor he is a worker of that contractor.

Being a ‘freelance-worker’ is, to all intends and purposes, the same as being a self-employed contractor.

One can lawfully be both: an employee or worker, as well as a freelancer -self employed.

If one who is normally an employee or worker wants also to do some freelance work, then one officially is an employee or worker and one’s entitlements in relation to ones normal status are not affected -but those entitlements do not extend to one’s freelance work and employment.

If one normally self employed wants also to do some work as an employee or worker of a business, then one’s official status as self-employed does not change -but one’s entitlements for work done as an employee or worker are not affected to the extent of one’s such work.

If one is not paid for holidays.. if a pension scheme depends on whether one is a freelancer or not.. if the employer is responsible for one’s colleagues’ taxes or pension contributions but not one’s own.. if one is working for one business but is paid by another… one might need to ascertain one’s employment status -the above are the legal tests.

(Laws change –always ascertain current law.)

Louisiana Extraditing Criminal Laws

An extradition warrant can result in an indiviual being arrested and delivered to another state or country.
When a wanted criminal is found to be living in another jurisdiction, such as another state or country, the authorities that have issued the warrant can file an extradition request. The extradition document requests that local law enforcement apprehend the individual and hand him over to the location where he is wanted. Each state and country has their own rules for how extradition requests are handled, and Louisiana is no different. The Louisiana State Legislation has very specific regulations to govern such situations.

Article 262

  • The extradition of wanted criminals is addressed by Article 262 of the Louisiana Code of Criminal Procedure. Titled as CCRP 262, this law grants the governor of the state the authority to have a wanted criminal arrested and delivered to the authorities in the state or country that has executed a warrant against the individual.

    This authority is given to the office of the governor with regard to any person who has fled to Louisiana after being charged with a felony, as well as anyone who is wanted for sentencing in a crime or who has fled in an attempt to avoid serving a sentence. Article 262 deals with felonies specifically and makes no provision for misdemeanor offenses.

Article 262.1

  • Article 262.1 is part of the Louisiana Code of Criminal Procedure and is a sub-section of the primary law dealing with the extradition of wanted criminals. The subsection deals with requests to extradite individuals who were not present during the commission of the crime but contributed to the act being committed in some manner. Article 262.1 gives the governor of Louisiana the authority to have this individual arrested and extradited. The extradition is at the discretion of the governor and is not mandatory.

Article 263

  • The Louisiana Code of Criminal Procedure (CCRP) identifies the requirements for making an extradition request in Article 263. This article states that requests for extradition must be delivered to the office of the governor in writing and must clearly state the reason why the extradition of the person is being requested. The governor’s office will ignore all requests that do not meet this criteria.

    Additionally, the request for extradition must be accompanied by a statement of facts by the prosecutor in the jurisdiction where the crime occurred, as well as a copy of the formal indictment. If no affidavit is available, the requesting jurisdiction may also submit a copy of an affidavit made before the office of the magistrate, together with a copy of the warrant that was sworn against the individual. In the event of cases that have been tried in absentia, a copy of the judgment of conviction is sufficient.

Tips That Will Help You Become a Modest Criminal Law Representation Lawyer

If you are aspiring to be a Criminal Law Representation Lawyer, you have to be pretty methodical as it needs a lot of determination and perseverance to become a successful professional.

Practicing criminal law is perhaps the most complicated and intricate profession as this asks for dealing with various types of criminals and criminal activities. Hence, the one aspiring to be a Criminal Law Representation Lawyer will have to be a master in handing criminal behavior, have expert understanding of criminal psychology and have some tremendous intuitive power. To some extent, all these develop in people naturally while one who is aspiring to be a criminal lawyer needs to develop them by undertaking training. All said and done, in order to become a successful lawyer, one needs to go through certain steps which are described below:

– The first step involves obtaining a suitable under graduate degree that will help to pick up practicing lay by profession. A solid preliminary education is an absolute imperative for being a successful criminal lawyer. However, when it comes to taking preliminary education, it is necessary to take up psychology, sociology, and even business.

– After completion of the right course of education, the next step involves admission to a proper law school. Of course the school needs to be reputed and home to the finest faculties.

– The third step ostensibly involves getting access to as many curriculums as possible that relate to various types of criminal law. Unlike other professional courses, the law colleges and schools do not have any specific or definite focused curriculums in certain sects of law. This means, the ones who are passing out of these colleges will not have any specific specialized degree on any particular sect of criminal law but will have the flexibility of dealing a variety of cases that will be available to them.

– Participating in various clinic programs will also help a lot as these curriculums are specifically designed for the would-be lawyers. However, a student who is in the 3rd year will be able get access to these programs. He or she can even attend the Court of Law under the mentorship of a licensed attorney. These programs are perfectly designed to provide firsthand experience to the aspiring lawyers with the procedures pertaining to criminal law and related issues and help them in getting acquainted with the same before they actively get into the profession.

– At first they need to apply for the position of a clerk in Court of Law and work under a Judge, court system, office of the prosecuting attorney or a criminal defense and legal firm. This will provide them a direct experience of dealing various criminal cases and justice system.

– After a subsequent time, the aspiring candidate needs to appear and pass Bar Assessment or Examination. Once that is done, the next step involves enrolling in the Bar Examination prep courses.

– Once that hurdle is passed, the aspirant needs to find a primary position that will allow the individual to have a practical experience of the legal system. All said and done, the ultimate objective is to become a proper Criminal Law Representation Lawyer who will be able to handle the rigor of dealing an astounding amount of trials and cases and related courtroom procedures.

Types of Criminal Law Crimes

In criminal law, there are three major categories that crimes may fall under: felonies, misdemeanors, and infractions. Though the crimes and punishments that fall into each category may vary by state, it’s important to understand what each category entails and what it could mean for you or a loved one.


Felonies are the most serious types of crimes that a person can be charged with, resulting in more serious punishments and longer jail time. Crimes that fall into this category can include murder, robbery, DUI, and domestic violence, among other offenses. If you are charged with a felony, the specific line of punishment you receive depends largely on your specific case. Felonies are typically divided according to whether people or property is threatened, and most states classify felonies as crimes that carry with them a minimum jail time sentence of more than one year. In some jurisdictions, a felony may be punishable by loss of voting rights; exclusion from purchase/possession of firearms, ammunition, and body armor; ineligibility to run for public office or serve on a jury; and, for severe crimes like murder, a guilty felon may receive the death sentence.


Misdemeanors are less serious than felonies, carrying with them less severe punishments and oftentimes including a fine. Jail time typically is under a year, though cases can also be resolved with probation, community service, or treatment programs, depending on the crime and ruling. Similar to felonies, misdemeanors are divided depending on whether persons or property is threatened. Crimes against persons include assault, disorderly conduct, DUI, indecent exposure, and prostitution, among other crimes. Misdemeanors against property include theft, trespass, and vandalism. If you are charged with a misdemeanor, chances are high that you will retain most of your rights, including the ability to serve on a jury and vote.


An infraction is the least serious offense of the three categories. There is no jail time associated with an infraction; instead, punishment usually includes fines and, in some cases, points against your driving record. Types of this offense include jaywalking, speeding tickets, not wearing a seat belt, littering, and disturbing the peace. Infractions are also known as traffic misdemeanors and can be added to your driving record. You are issued a ticket with an infraction that details your rights as the accused and how to pay for your ticket, which you can either pay or dispute. If you do not perform any action by the ticket’s deadline, however, a default judgment can be ruled and your driving record may suffer. The best thing to do is to deal with them promptly.


Your Popular Concerns Resolved On Selecting Employment Lawyers

It is already a given that as an employer, it is your responsibility to treat your workers properly, but you will find times when your staff won’t really be satisfied on what they are getting. Well, it is not always advisable to do everything that they want just because they are considered to be valuable assets of your enterprise. This is why you have to employ employment attorneys to help you. It is never easy to understand everything about the employment laws and it is not advisable to disregard it. It is better if you will look at the different advantages that you could acquire by seeking the help of an employment lawyer.

As you are all aware of, you will find a couple of troubles that may come up involving the employer and employee and the employment lawyer will deal with this efficiently. The lawyers will be handling everything with respect to these legal issues.

If you think that you can manage everything all on your own, then there’s absolutely no reason to employ them. Nevertheless, a huge firm may well require a attorney to handle these kinds of difficulties.

All the paper works that your organization needs like settlements, wage, bonuses and more will be handled by the lawyers. You could expect these attorneys to aid you if you do not understand these employment laws and regulations.

Claims that are originating from your personnel should not be dismissed since they can always file a legal case against you if you’re not honoring their rights. If you do not have an employment lawyer, you will surely have a difficult time thinking about the best answer to these troubles.

You must always decide based on the employment law when you’re speaking about compensation, staff contractors, bad behavior on the job and more. All these problems can be avoided if you have a professional employment attorney in your firm.

As you are all aware of, organizations are not resistant to legal complications and you’ll lose a lot if an staff makes a decision to file a complaint. Hiring an employment attorney will surely guarantee that the choice that you will make is always within the boundaries of the legislation.

As the owner of the firm, your responsibility is to handle the day to day functions of your organization. It means that you don’t have the time to study all the things that are connected to the employment legislation as they can already be handled by the Human Resource department. If you’d like to guarantee that you are dealing with the personnel efficiently, you must think about a professional employment lawyer. It is true that you will need to spend some extra resources in employing a lawyer, but you can guarantee that you will benefit greatly when you have the best employment attorney in your company. These attorneys can help prevent some legal troubles in the foreseeable future.

Employment attorneys are very beneficial to your organization in many ways so if you are still thinking that they are just a waste of money, then you are making a big mistake. You will also know that you could prevent future legalities with your employees by hiring these attorneys.

Want a little extra information or advice on employment law? In case you’re having a look for a sound, successful employment lawyer then why not take a look at I have usually found them to be very useful.

Criminal Law in Singapore – Be Aware Stay Safe

Tours and travel is a popular form of business in Singapore. It is one of the biggest revenue generators in the entire country.

Singapore has a number of great tourist places, which are visited by a number of travelers every year. In comparison to most of the Asian countries, Singapore is considered to be best for the travelers. Low crime rate, easy lifestyle, convenient travel options and affordable holiday options, everything constitute in making Singapore one of the best places to be traveled. However, there are a few things, which every traveler must keep in mind while traveling. Singapore has low crime rate, however it can be quite harsh for the travelers. You must keep the given things in view along with the criminal law of Singapore.

€ Stay agile in crowded places. 
€ Keep watch on your personal belongings.
€ Do not carry expensive things with you.
€ Do not travel all alone if you are not aware of the cities or parts of the country. 
€ Keep in touch with your country’s embassy.

Most of the travelers engage into buying counterfeit products from black markets. It is against the criminal law of Singapore. You can end up being arrested for buying such products and presented in front of the court of law. In case you have not done anything like this yet you are accused of buying illegal stuff, hire a good criminal lawyer to deal with the case. The lawyer should be aware of the Singapore law to represent your case properly.

However, Singapore is a modern country; it has strict law against inappropriate actions, behaviors and touching of men and women in public. You must not engage into anything, which you may think is normal but is against the law of Singapore. You can be tried for indecency in the court of law. Do not indulge or speak any inappropriate language. The act can end you up with two years of prison, deportation, fine or all of the above.

If you are planning to visit Singapore for drugs and weed, stay put where you are. Singapore has a strict law against drugs consumption, drug pedaling or any other activity related to drugs. The penalty can vary from a couple of years in jail along with fine to death penalty. It is advisable to read all the criminal laws of Singapore to avoid any unwanted condition. Be aware and enjoy the trip.

How to Get Into an Elite Law School

Do you dream of graduating from a top law school? Of being courted
by the most prestigious firms even before you get your J.D.? Sounds
great, but there’s no guarantee you’ll be happy at one of these schools.
Before you jump in, study the culture to see whether you truly want to
attend an Ivy League or comparable school. If you do, apply early, stay
on top of the paperwork and show what a valuable asset you’ll be.


  1. Attend a college that successfully feeds students into the top law schools (see 150 Get Into a Top College or University). The best bet is to get your undergraduate degree at Harvard, Yale or Princeton, but other colleges are devising ways to make their students attractive to top graduate schools. Pomona College in California, for instance, has upped its success by helping students with interviews, letters of recommendation and more.
  2. Strive for a 3.5 or above grade point average (GPA). Be aware that a 4.0 at one school may not be comparable to a 4.0 at a less-competitive school. Admissions directors look at the level of your coursework, too. Major in English/literature, philosophy, history or political science/government. Be able to write well.
  3. Take a good look at the law schools you think you want to attend. Harvard, for instance, has a premier reputation and just about guarantees you a big firm job, but will you like the large classes, busy faculty and fellow students? Find out all about highly ranked law schools in America’s Best Graduate Schools from U.S. News & World Report (
  4. Understand that good grades aren’t enough–you need to ace the Law School Admission Test ( Look into LSAT preparation courses (which can cost upward of $1,000) on Web sites such as and, and take practice tests. Be aware that effective studying for the LSAT usually takes at least 50 hours. See 151 Ace the College Admissions Tests and 157 Prepare for the Bar Exam for study tips.
  5. Take the exam in June or October of the year before you plan to enter law school. In theory, the LSAT is a consistent measure for an admissions officer to compare all applicants with each other. Scores range from a low of 120 to a high of 180. You’ll want to score 164 or above to stay in the running. (The national average is about 152.)
  6. Register with the Law School Data Assembly Service (LSDAS), which will compile a report about you and send it to any law school you want. The LSDAS report includes your official test scores, transcripts and recommendations, and it’s a requirement at nearly every law school approved by the American Bar Association (
  7. Request applications from the law schools you want to attend– you can often download them from the schools’ Web sites. To make it easier, start a Web account with LSDAS or buy its CDROM so you can electronically access the application of nearly any law school you can imagine.
  8. Get all your ducks in a row and submit your application early. By the end of summer, request transcripts and line up letters of recommendation, which you’ll need to send to LSDAS. Ask the people who recommend you to be specific about what makes you a great candidate and how you stand out from other students (see 152 Organize Your College Applications).
  9. Apply by November of the year before you want enter law school. This is especially important at schools such as Harvard that have rolling admissions. They make a decision on each application as it comes in, and the class starts to fill up as the months go by.

How to Become a Lawyer Without Law School

Although most states require that students hold a Juris Doctorate from an American Bar Association (ABA)-approved law school before sitting for the bar exam, a few states have exceptions. Several states, including New York and Virginia, allow prospective attorneys to sit for the bar exam if they have completed at least one year of study at an ABA-approved school; however, only California allows people to take the bar exam without having attended any law school at all. Currently, the only way to be eligible to sit for the bar exam in California without attending a law school is to participate in the California Law Office Study Program (LOSP).

Becoming an Attorney without Going to Law School

  1. Submit an official Notice of Intent to Study Law in a Law Office or Judge&#039;s Chambers to the California State Bar Association. This is an applicant&#039;s official request to participate in the Law Office Study Program (LOSP), and can be found on the California Bar&#039;s website. If they have not already, students should also find a California attorney or judge who has been “a continuously active member for at least five years in good standing” with the California State Bar willing to sponsor their application and teach them.
  2. Comply with the regulations of the LOSP. California State Bar Association rules say that in order to qualify to sit for the California bar, students must study in the law office for a minimum of 18 hours per week, 48 consecutive weeks per year, for four years. The supervising judge or attorney must examine the student with a written examination at least once each month. The judge or attorney must then submit a semi-annual report to the Bar Association, which must include the questions and answers of the written examinations.
  3. Take and pass the California First-Year Law Students&#039; Examination, commonly known as the “Baby Bar.” Students in the LOSP are eligible to sit for the Baby Bar after they have completed one full year of study, defined as 18 hours per week for 48 consecutive weeks. The Baby Bar is administered in June and October of each year; students who pass it within three attempts will receive credit for all study up to that point, but students who pass after three attempts will only receive credit for one year of study. Students must have four years of study in order to be eligible to sit for the General Bar Examination.
  4. Take and pass the General Bar Examination. Students who have passed the Baby Bar and have four years of study in strict compliance with California Bar Association Rules are eligible to sit for the general California Bar Examination. Like all people wishing to establish eligibility to practice law in California, LOSP students must pass the Multistate Professional Responsibility Exam (MPRE) as well as the California-specific California Bar Examination. The Bar Exam is offered in July and February each year.

Criminal Law Marital Coercion

Though the terminology used by judges and writers is by no means uniform, the term €coercion’ is generally reserved for a special defence that was available at common law only to a wife who committed certain crimes in the presence of her husband. It was then presumed that she acted under such coercion as to entitle her to be excused, unless the prosecution was able to prove that she took the initiative in committing the offence. The exact extent of the defence at common law is uncertain. It did not apply to treason or murder; Hale excluded manslaughter as well and Hawkins ruled out robbery.

Earlier authorities allowed the defence only in the case of felonies but later it seems to have been extended to misdemeanors- but excluding brothel-keeping; €for this is an offence touching the domestic economy or government of the home in which the wife has a principal share’.

Various theoretical justifications were advanced for this rule- the identity of husband and wife’s subjection to her husband and her duty to obey him- but practical reason for its application to felonies was that it saved a woman from death penalty when her husband was able, but she was not, to plead benefit to clergy. This reason disappeared in 1692 when benefit of clergy was extended to women, yet the rule continued and its scope increased.

In 1925, however the presumption was abolished by the Criminal justice Act 1925.

Any presumption of law that an offence committed by the wife in presence of her husband is committed under the coercion of the husband is hereby abolished, but on a charge against a wife for any offence than treason or murder, it shall be a good defence to prove that the offence was committed in the presence of, and under the coercion of the husband.

At first sight, it would seem that all parliament has done is to shift the burden of proof. But there are difficulties about this, for the question at once arises, proof of what? And it is not very easy to answer. Coercion at common law was really a fiction applied when the wife committed a crime in the presence of her husband and there was no evidence of initiative by the wife. The common law gives little guidance as to what is required now coercion is a matter of affirmative proof. A case of procuring a passport by deception, the court said that the wife must prove on the balance of probabilities that her will was overborne by the wishes of her husband so that she was forced unwillingly to participate in the offence. Neither physical force nor the threat of it is required.

How to Improve the Criminal Justice System

Student Activities for Teaching the Judicial System
Changing the Criminal Justice system seems like an impossible task, but becomes possible when one understands the composition of the system and the factors that affect it. There are three branches of government (legislative, executive and judicial) each of which has its individual role in the criminal justice system and each of which must change to change the system. The legislature makes the laws, the judicial enforces and the executive administers. Additionally the media and special interests groups plan strong roles in influences the type and severity of laws created and their administration.


  1. Vote: The election process is still one of the most powerful ways to change the system. Voting, however, without a sound understanding of the candidate will change little. Voting must be done from an educated prospective. Following candidate websites, doing computer searches of their policies and attitudes will help you determine if their stance is in line with your own.
  2. Write: Lawmakers are concerned with what their constituents think. The strongest expression of opinion regarding a specific issue is generally the direction a vote takes. Bill proposals are complicated and lawmakers, unless they are on the specific committee that approves the bill for presentation to the general body, they general poorly informed as to the specifics or implications of a given bill. They seek opinions from colleges and the general public as to which course of action they should take. To change the system one must study the proposed bills and then share your educated opinion with both Federal and State legislators. State legislation often follows patterns established by their Federal equivalents.
  3. Contact Judges and Prosecutors: While often limited in their application of the law by its requirements,(some crimes require specific periods of sentencing) are ultimately where prosecutions take place. Criminal prosecution will often be based on a prosecutor or judge’s desire to get reelected. Crimes that are currently hot topics or which particularly insight public abhorrence are dealt with more harshly than others. When election time comes their opponents will use their record to detract votes. Writing or calling judges and prosecutors on their treatment of specific types of crime will influence their actions.
  4. Express your opinion: Media influence plays a huge part in the public perception of criminals and how the justice system is working, which ultimately effects voting and performance of legislators, judges, prosecutors, and administrators. Expressing your knowledgeable opinion in the media through editorials, articles, and attendance at political events can do a lot to get the word out.
  5. Create your own special interest group. The criminal justice system has become so entwined with capitalism that economic factors and the interests behind them often effect how laws are created, enforced, and administered. Groups who tend to profit from incarcerated individuals hire individuals to lobbyists. You can create your own special interest group and share your opinion.

Benefit of Legal Employment Representation

Many employees are illegally terminated from their jobs in California every day, but either they do not know that their termination was illegal, they believe that getting help from an attorney will cost them a lot of money that they do not have, or they believe bringing a lawsuit would be a waste of time. Employees are generally not well informed about their rights when they are terminated, so they commonly do not realize that their termination was illegal. Furthermore, many employees are not aware that they could speak to an experienced employment discrimination lawyer in Los Angeles for free, and if they have a good case, could be represented on a contingency basis (No recovery no fee). Finally, many employees are not aware that juries in California commonly award plaintiffs who have been wrongfully terminated awards in the six figures, or in some cases seven figures. If you are discharged in California, many laws exist to protect you from illegal terminations. However, many of these laws are complex, and many times they are not easy to understand. Luckily, if you live in the Los Angeles or Orange County area, it is as easy as picking up your phone to get information about whether you may have been wrongfully terminated. Many of the best employment law firms have hotlines where employees can call for free to speak about their termination. If you appear to have a potential wrongful termination case after talking with the firm on the phone, many of the best employment law attorneys who represent people in Los Angeles and Orange County will be willing to talk to you in person for free.

It is unfortunate that many times issues of unlawful discrimination, retaliation for being a whistleblower or sexual harassment go unpunished because the employee victim never contacts an experienced employment law attorney to speak about their case. Most employees have no idea of all their rights under the California Labor Code, or the California Fair Employment and Housing Act, so they don’t even know when their rights have been violated. Furthermore, when employers terminate an employee for illegal reasons they generally are going to try and hide it, but an experienced employment law attorney can tell the “red flags” that signal a wrongful termination, so you always need to talk to one if you termination seems “fishy” or pretextual. Some of the best employment discrimination lawyers in Los Angeles are willing to speak to potential victims of wrongful termination for free, so it should cost you nothing to find out whether you may have been wrongfully terminated. It is a huge mistake to not taking the time to call a reputable employment law firm who will talk to you for free to tell them about your termination.

When looking for the best California employment law termination attorney, make sure they have a solid reputation, a track record of success, and will not charge you money to consult. An attorney who wants you to pay them money up front to write a letter to your former employer is a really, really bad sign that this attorney is going to cost you a lot of money, and get you very little or nothing in return. A lot of bad attorneys may try and tell you that employees will pay a lot of money based upon the fear that you may file a lawsuit, so you should pay them to write a letter threatening your former employer you are going to sue. This strategy may get you a fraction of what your lawsuit is worth, but most corporations will not pay what your lawsuit is worth until you file a lawsuit and establish the facts. In other words, most corporations will not pay you what your lawsuit is worth until they realize they are going to lose if the case goes to trial. Unfortunately, corporations have gotten used to paying small settlements for cases that should be worth hundreds of thousands of dollars because of bad plaintiff’s attorneys who do not know what they are doing. The truth is that there are a lot of attorneys who have no experience in the area of employment law who will ask for money to write letters or large retainer fees, which employees who have been terminated generally cannot afford, to do a little meaningless work on the case, and then at some point they will ask for more money to file the case, or tell you they can get you a few thousand dollars. Please don’t retain one of these attorneys.

Success means getting you get the financial compensation you deserve for pain and suffering and loss of income if you can prove you were wrongfully terminated. Victims of wrongful termination in California commonly receive six and seven figure verdicts from juries if they win at trial. The problem is too many attorneys are not willing to go to trial, and the corporate defense counsel know who they are. Always retain an attorney who has a reputation for going to trial and winning, because these are the attorneys who can get you the biggest settlements.

The good news is that some of the best wrongful termination lawyers in Los Angeles take cases on a contingency basis (No recovery no fee), and they will consult with you about your case for free. A discrimination attorney in Los Angeles who is any good should only get paid if you get money. This means your interests are aligned with the attorney because the more money he/she gets you, the more money he/she will make as a fee.

HR: The Importance of Keeping up-to-Date with UK Employment Law

UK employment law is ever-changing and it is a full time job just keeping up with the latest legislation. Everything from working hours, holiday entitlement, health and safety in the workplace to equality and diversity issues are all covered by employment law and that‘s why it is so important for both workers and employers to know their rights and obligations.

Issues such as the national minimum wage, employment contracts and conditions and business transfers and takeovers (TUPE) rights are all very important pieces of legislation for companies that employ one or more people. Large corporations tend to employ HR specialists to ensure that they are up to date with the latest rules and regulations. However, smaller organisations including SMEs are also required to stay within the law and for them it may be more difficult to stay alert to the latest changes due to time and resource constraints.

If that is the case they should enlist the help of government funded agencies such as Business Link, or independent organisations such as ACAS to alert them to any relevant changes in legislation; after all ignorance is no defence when it comes to the law.

In addition to employment Acts there are also Codes of Practice approved by Parliament, such as time off work for trade union duties that also impact on employers. So, knowing what you can and can’t do as an employer and your legal obligations to your workers is vitally important if you are to provide a legal and safe working environment. Most responsible employers adhere to employment law and understand its importance, although some do not and they end up being prosecuted.

The penalties for not adhering to relevant legislation vary according the offence. In the most extreme cases, such as cases involving the death of employees in the workplace, penalties can be severe and may include custodial sentences as well as heavy fines for company directors and other employees. However, other offences are dealt with less harshly. For example, under the Employment Act 2008 a company failing to pay its workers the national minimum wage is liable to a fine of 50% of the total underpayment, with the minimum fine set at £100 rising to a maximum of £5,000 in addition to paying the shortfall to their workers as arrears. Early payment reduces the fine by 50%.

But, if you are a company director the best way to ensure that you stay on the right side of the law is to keep up with the latest employment legislation. How you do that is down to you. There are plenty of organisations that offer the latest advice, so there is no excuse!

How to start a bail bonds process and get a loved one out of jail fast from any Los Angeles County Jail

Starting a Bail Bonds process in Los Angeles California can seem a bit scary. Big Boy Bonds 1(818)244-3389 is here to help you through the process step by step. We are located at 6225 Van Nuys Blvd, Los Angeles CA. As licensed bondsman serving the state of California, I have met many people from all walks of life. And we all know that people make mistakes, and most mistakes are forgivable. Usually when you find yourself in trouble, the first person you contact is a family member. You must understand that receiving this type of a phone call, can be a very scary for the person on the other end.

Most people are not accustomed to dealing with bail bond companies, or jails in Los Angeles California. Therefore when you do make this phone call, you must explain to your loved one how they can help you get out of jail fast.You want to instruct your family number to call a reputable bail bond company, that has high ratings on Yelp or Google reviews such as Big Boy Bail Bonds, Inc In Los Angeles CA. . Making sure that you’re calling a Los Angeles Bail Bonds company that has a good reputation is a very important step. Once you are able to get a hold of a bondsman, that you feel is friendly and has enough knowledge to make you feel at ease. You will most likely be instructed by the bondsman, to provide the inmate’s first name, last name,middle name and date of birth. Once you provide the correct information, to the bondsman he or she will call the local jail, to get full bail information on the inmate. The information will include the criminal charges,court date, and the court location.

As soon as the Los Angeles County Jail says that it is OK for the inmate to post a bail bond. Your bondsmen is allowed to go to the jail and turn in the paperwork for your release. Before any bail bond company in Los Angeles agrees to post a bond. They will they will require you to bring in two forms of ID, a California ID card or social security card, and proof of residency. Once you have filled out your bail bond application, and has passed underwriting guidelines. You will then the allowed to have a bond posted on your behalf.

Important Things to Know About Criminal Law

Criminal law is the branch of law that aims to define what crimes are and how to deal and punish people who commit these criminal acts. It is just one of the many branches of the law, but it is what usually what comes to mind when people think of the legal system. It is a very important part of the justice system.
Though criminal law is very important, most people are not well-informed when it comes to this matter. What most people know about criminal law are the things that they learn and see from legal dramas and movies. This is unfortunate because criminal law is something that everyone should be familiar with.
Ordinary people need not become legal experts who know criminal law in every aspect. It is enough that you should be familiar with it in ways that you might be affected by. You will need that knowledge just in case you or someone important to you gets into legal trouble.
Why You Need a Lawyer
You have probably seen on TV that people can defend themselves in court when they are facing criminal charges. Doing something like that in real life, however, is extremely risky and could cause a great deal of trouble for you in the long run. If you know that you might be facing criminal charges, then you should get the services of a good lawyer immediately.
A lawyer can help protect your rights. A lawyer will also tell you what you should do so you do not make things worse than they already are.
Don’t Say Anything Except When Asking for a Lawyer
When you know that you are being suspected of some crime, then you must not make an official statement when the police approaches. You should not say anything except for when you ask for a lawyer. You have probably seen this on TV.
Saying anything at this stage could really do more harm to you than good. So refrain from saying anything and just wait for your lawyer.
Don’t Allow a Search
Even when you know that you did not commit anything wrong, you should still not agree on a search being conducted on your home or your vehicle. It is your right to not agree on such a search and if the police officers still continue with the search, even though you did not agree, then anything that they find there will be inadmissible as evidence. They could also be liable for charges because they have violated your rights.
Putting You on a Line-Up
If the police were to ask you to be placed on a line-up then you should request to have a lawyer present. The lawyer can decide if the police has any right to include you in a line-up or not. The lawyer can also monitor if the procedure is going to be done in a fair manner or not.
The bottom-line is that you should be aware of your rights and you should not give those up. Having a lawyer can also go a long way when you are accused of a crime.

How to Get Charges Dismissed in a Criminal Case

Charges can be dropped any time between arrest and conviction.
If you ever find yourself facing criminal charges, whether an infraction, misdemeanor or felony, the best possible outcome would be to get the charges dropped. Charges can be dismissed at any point between arrest and conviction. Although obtaining an innocent verdict is good, getting charges dismissed saves time and litigation costs. Depending on your situation, the steps range in complexity, but there are a few simple guidelines to follow to have criminal charges dismissed.


  1. Learn about the specific charge you are facing. You can do this by reading the statute the prosecution is charging you with. Criminal law statutes will set out each element of a crime; you can only be charged and convicted of the crime if you have fulfilled each and every element of that crime. For example, in many states, the legal definition of theft is “unlawfully appropriating property with intent to deprive the owner of property.” If you can prove that you took someone else’s property, but only had the intention of borrowing it and not of depriving the owner of it, then you can request that your charge be dismissed. Note that the request must be made to the judge, who has the final say in this matter. Some mistakenly believe that the prosecutor determines this question. Not so–the judge makes the final determination. In most cases, the judge agrees with the prosecutor’s office if it decides to drop charges. Even so, the prosecutor’s duty is to prosecute a case and obtain a guilty verdict if justice demands it, so the prosecutor’s office will rarely drop criminal charges.The burden is therefore on the defendant to request the judge dismiss the charges if he believes he is innocent of the crime.
  2. Read the Fourth and Fifth Amendments of the U.S. Constitution, and determine whether or not the police violated your constitutional rights during or after arrest. All citizens have a right to be protected from unreasonable searches and seizures, and law enforcement must always have probable cause before it can search you or your property. Police are also required to read you your Miranda rights while you are in custody, and all interrogation must cease if you request a lawyer. If the police failed to read you the Miranda Warning while you were in custody, or if they gathered evidence against you illegally by failing to produce a search warrant when one was required, then you may have a case for getting your charges discharged.
  3. Do legal research on cases similar to yours. You can do an online search of any number of legal databases, using search terms involving the particular crime you are charged with and any constitutional or statutory issues you think are relevant. Read these cases carefully, familiarize yourself with the legal issues and arguments involved, and try to determine whether or not they would apply successfully in your case. If you are being tried in a federal court, be sure to focus on federal law; if you are being charged in a state court, research the law of your particular state. Of course, a U.S. Supreme Court case would carry the greatest weight and authority in any court, so if you find one that is pertinent to your case, use it.

About Criminal Mischief Laws

Criminal mischief is the crime of damaging property owned by another person. Criminal mischief is also commonly known as “vandalism,” though it can also share elements of theft or product tampering. In most jurisdictions, criminal mischief can be charged as a misdemeanor or felony, depending on the dollar value of the property affected.

A vandalized door, with a pane of glass broken


  • Most statutes define criminal mischief as the knowing and intentional damage or destruction of property owned by another. A person may damage or destroy her own property without violating criminal mischief laws. However, depending on the circumstances, destroying one’s own property may constitute disorderly conduct or another crime. Additionally, criminal mischief is pervasive and has an extensive economic impact. According to the National Insurance Crime Bureau, vandalism at construction sites alone comprises over $1 billion dollars per year. Schools and public facilities also experience hundreds of dollars of criminal mischief damage each year.

Graffiti and Tampering

  • Some state laws specifically include graffiti and product tampering in their definitions of criminal mischief. For example, Alaska law states that tampering with air, food or water is Class B felony criminal mischief. Under Texas law, criminal mischief includes tampering as well as intentionally making “markings, inscriptions, slogans, drawings or paintings on the tangible property of another.”

Property Value

  • Most jurisdictions allow criminal mischief to be charged as either a felony or misdemeanor, depending on the dollar value of the property damage. New Hampshire law defines felony criminal mischief as property damage over $1,000 in value. Texas law creates seven categories of criminal mischief penalties: Class A, B, and C misdemeanors for property damage from $50 to $1500; state jail felony for damage from $1,500 to $20,000; and three categories of felony for damage upwards of $20,000.


  • Penalties for criminal mischief may include jail time as well as an order to pay restitution to repair the damage or replace the destroyed item. Cases in which there is only minor damage, first-time offenders, youth and other defendants can often take advantage of court diversion or community reparative board programs to avoid lasting criminal sanctions.


  • Criminal mischief is a common charge against youth. According to parental advocate Sue Scheff, teens commit vandalism as a bonding activity, to exact revenge or because they are bored. In such cases, criminal mischief may be charged as juvenile delinquency instead of being levied as an adult crime.

A professional personal injury lawyer can help you in several legal matters

If one is struggling with legal issues like criminal defense, personal injury case or criminal defense, should find a reliable law firm who provides effective solutions to the people. The need of the hour is to search for a good law firm. In a human life, injuries can happen anytime and anywhere. Other times, accidents can occur because of road accidents as well. If you just met with an accident, you should opt for a reliable personal injury lawyer who is able to provide you your rights and protection as per your needs. The experienced lawyers are able to help victims to oppose against the indemnity society to get what’s rightfully theirs.

With the help of the internet, one can attain numerous service providers who can deliver you effective law solutions and strategies to the people at budget friendly prices. However, the most reputable and a diligent law firm renders top class methods and solutions for your legal issues in the most beneficial manner. With their professional team of experts, juries, prosecutors, judges and attorneys, they have committed their time in dealing with your case in the most legal way that you won’t find anywhere else. Throughout the years, the firm serves its essential amenities to all over Texas, Lubbock and the surrounding areas as well.

In addition, the company has excelled in giving essential services to the clients such as criminal law, personal injury, workplace injuries and workers compensation, industrial accidents, auto accident and truck wrecks, family law and social security law. Yet, their passionate and dedicated lawyers, deals with every range of cases ranging from assault or drug possession to murder. They believe in giving positive yet glorifying results to the people. Thence, the Criminal defense attorney Lubbock focuses over several matters such as drug possession, theft & burglary, felonies and violations, parole and probation violations, traffic and alcohol infractions.

Nonetheless, for any of your legal proceedings, contact their Attorney Lubbock and receive a free consultation with their dedicated professionals. If you met with an accident, and needs a reliable destination where you can rely upon easily, then this is the ultimate location for all your needs. In personal injury, they cut through subjects like auto accidents, auto, inn fields, truck, wrecks, motorcycle accidents, brain injuries, wrongful death and child injuries as well. For more information gathering, please visit their online website and you will be responded as soon as possible.

A Tough Brooklyn Criminal Lawyer And The Visions

Crimes are everywhere, so people must be aware that there are ways on how you can avoid all these stuff. However, for people that are facing criminal charges, it is very significant that you must hire for the best and experienced Brooklyn criminal lawyer. Hiring one of them can be the best solution and giving a chance to help you defend yourself thus receiving favorable decision. Keep in mind that when you are with criminal cases, it is always the lawyer your defense. Keep in mind that never says anything before your Brooklyn criminal lawyer arrives. If necessary, you need to hire a lawyer to defend yourself in front of the court. Hiring one of the excellent lawyers must have an in detailed knowledge and having full experience to handle various similar cases. Keep in mind that a good and well versed Brooklyn criminal lawyer can handle different types of criminal cases.

An excellent way of finding Brooklyn criminal lawyer is through getting certain referral. You can get referrals from your friends and relatives. Either, you can try selected websites or companies providing referrals of the excellent lawyers within the nearest place. The World Wide Web is the best way to find the well versed and experienced lawyers; just look for their websites and you must read their portfolio. Through contacting them and tell them about your case, they will determine what type of Brooklyn criminal lawyer will be suited in handling your case. Online searching is definitely not costly and it is very practical. The most important thing, one is rest assured that the Brooklyn criminal lawyer you have chosen is truly best for your criminal case. Furthermore, referral sites and online directories are very useful nowadays. With this, people cannot only save their time but their money too. Getting lawyer through online is affordable but it is a good decision since you hired one of the best lawyers all over the world.

In addition, a Brooklyn criminal lawyer is indeed dedicated to serve people with their experienced and skilled capabilities. Lawyers in Brooklyn are very aggressive in every criminal case they are handling such as dealing with domestic violence, police brutality, election law, drug charges and DWI. Since they are focusing with criminal defenses for numerous years, they have in-depth understanding for the various factors that concerns their criminal cases. Most lawyers are using their understanding and valuable strategies. In addition, their experiences and insights are all being used gaining further favorable judgment. Brooklyn criminal lawyer do have sophisticated approach every cases they are handling thus looking for all possibilities of getting defenses, plea negotiations and alternatives to keep from getting long term jail and reducing your criminal charges.

Additionally, Brooklyn criminal lawyer offers initial consultations free. You can discuss thus finding out your prospects’ concerns to have the necessary damages for any incidents as you are the victim. Therefore, these lawyers give legal counseling and advice to certain person that caught with criminal charges. Thus, they will guide and help you get lots of decisions and acquiring all the required documents related with the case.

Appeals in Criminal Law

Source: wikipedia and criminal.laws

appeal.jpgIn law, an appeal is a process for requesting a formal change to an official decision.
An appellate court is a court that hears cases on appeal from another court. Depending on the particular legal rules that apply to each circumstance, a party to a court case who is unhappy with the result might be able to challenge that result in an appellate court on specific grounds. These grounds typically could include errors of law, fact, or procedure (in the United States, due process).

In different jurisdictions, appellate courts are also called appeals courts, courts of appeals, superior courts, or supreme courts.

Criminal law states that any criminal convicted of a crime can opt for a criminal appeal. An appeal is something that is filed to determine whether or not a verdict or court decision was accurate or fair. The criminal appeal is a process that involves a hearing or review of a case of the verdict by a higher court. This does not mean the case will be retried and many times nothing new or substantial is found. Cases that are reviewed go to a higher court for further investigation, the appeal is often a long process if anything new is found. Criminal law did not always have the appeal option however, but through years of reform and restructuring of criminal law, it was added just in case any mistakes were made. Criminal law before appeals suggested that the courts decision was absolutely final and that there would be no exceptions to the rule. Nowadays, there is a criminal appeal because people do make mistakes, or there is often new evidence found after the case has been closed.
Who Can Appeal

A party who files an appeal is called an appellant or petitioner, and a party on the other side is called a respondent (in most common-law countries) or an appellee (in the United States). The appellant is the party who, having lost part or all their claim in a lower court decision, is appealing to a higher court to have their case reconsidered. This is usually done on the basis that the lower court judge erred in the application of law, but it may also be possible to appeal on the basis of court misconduct, or that a finding of fact was entirely unreasonable to make on the evidence.

It is recommended that you hire a criminal attorney that is well versed in criminal law. Many criminal attorney’s can give you a free consultation to the criminal law appeal process. Criminal law has been created to treat both the defendant and the state fairly and justly. Sometimes cases are often rushed or have mistakes made. It is important to know your rights and what you can do if you feel that you have been unfairly convicted.

Washington Employment Law – At-Will Employment

One of the most common questions people ask me is whether or not they are protected against being fired for no reason. Because the overwhelming majority of Washington state residents are at-will employees, the answer is usually that they are not protected, unless the reason for termination goes against a protected right of the employee. Here is some basic information about at-will employment and what it takes to be considered a wrongful termination case.

At-Will Employee- A Definition

While signing an employment agreement, most people just glance over the information, not really taking the time to decipher the information inside. For the vast majority of workers, the agreement will state that they are at-will, but what exactly does this mean? Here’s the simple definition of at-will employment: “A common-law rule that an employment contract of indefinite duration can be terminated by either the employer or the employee at any time for any reason; also known as terminable at will.” In a nut shell, an at-will employee can end their employment at any time, but can also be terminated at any time for any reason. You can easily see where problems may arise with an at-will employee as they can be terminated on a whim simply because the employer doesn’t like the employee’s hair style or their favorite sports team. Even if you do not sign an employee contract stating that you are an at-will employee, if you are not hired on a contract bases it is assumed by the state that you are at-will. Not only can at-will employees be fired at any time for any reason they can also have their hours, job description, position title and salary changed at any point in time with little notice and with little protection from the legal system.

So How Do I Know If I Am At-Will?

Two types of employment exist in the United States: at-will employees and contract employees. The basic difference is a contract employee has a set agreement specifying the duration of employment or that the employee must have just cause for dismissal while an at-will employee does not. As mentioned earlier, most workers in the United States are at-will employees, but how do you know if you are an at-will employee. Generally speaking, if you have not signed a contract which states that you will not be fired without just cause you are assumed by the state to be an at-will employee. For most employees, the employee contract specifies which type of employee you are.

Does Being an At-Will Employee Ruin my Wrongful Termination Case?

While many people believe that being fired without any reason makes it a case of wrongful termination, it is actually much more complicated than that. In order to have a wrongful termination case, you must be fired for something that is legally protected. These protections include: discrimination, retaliation, refusing to do illegal acts, taking a protected absence from work and if the termination is in violation of a contract.

Discrimination: An employer cannot discriminate against an employee or fire them for their race, gender, age, religion, disability status, pregnancy status or, in many places, their gender identity or sexual orientation.

Retaliation: An employer cannot fire an employee as a means of retaliation for the employee exercising a right such as notifying the health department of issues within the company.

Refusing to Do Illegal Acts: An employee may not be fired for refusing to partake in illegal acts. If you refuse to violate safety, or health laws your employer is not able to fire you.

Taking a Protected Absence: An employer cannot terminate employment for an employee taking time off for military service, maternity leave or voting.

Breach of Contract: If a contract is in place, an employee cannot be fired without reason. This can be either a verbal or written contract. What Do I do If I’ve Been Wrongfully Terminated? If you have been terminated for a reason listed above, do not wait to contact an experienced wrongful termination lawyer as there is limited time for you to make your claim.

About Arizona Criminal Speeding Laws

Most traffic infractions in Arizona are civil matters and do not apply to your criminal record, including most speeding tickets. Stomp down on the gas pedal a little too hard, though, and you risk drawing criminal charges for your flagrant disregard of traffic law and can face misdemeanor speeding charges that take the case out of the civil realm and into the criminal one.

A close-up of a foot pressing down on the accelator pedal of his vehicle.

Definition of Excessive Speeds

  • Arizona law defines excessive speeds as those that exceed 35 miles per hour in a school zone, exceed the posted speed limit by 20 mph or traveling faster than 85 mph on a highway. Excessive speeders may face criminal charges rather than civil ones, resulting in a Class 3 misdemeanor. If your speeding ticket stems from a drag racing situation, state law may increase your ticket to a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Fines and Imprisonment

  • Persons found guilty of excessive speed face much stiffer penalties than a civil-action ticket, with the possibility of up to 30 days in jail and a maximum fine of $500. Additional assessments of up to 60 percent of the ticket may be levied by the court.

Traffic School

  • Some offenders are offered the chance to attend traffic school as part of their punishment. If they successfully complete the course, the criminal charges may be stricken from their record, although they are only allowed to use this clause once in any 24-month period.

What Is a Criminal Law?

Criminal law refers to a type of law that not only dictates a standard of expected behavior but also imposes sanctions or punishments if an individual fails to comply with that law. Criminal law is enforced by agents of the government.

What Is a Criminal Law?


  • The first code of law, which blended criminal and civil law into one canon of conduct, was developed by the ancient Sumerians. The Sumerians developed their code of law around 2100 B.C. The Code of Hammurabi is an example of an early code of law, one that combined criminal and civil law. Hammurabi was a Babylonian. It was not until the Normans invaded England that a separate code of criminal law was developed. From this early Norman code of criminal law, the criminal system and set of laws that exist in countries such as the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States is founded.


  • The primary function of a criminal law is to control and regulate the conduct of people living in society, of people living in a community. The theory behind criminal law is that if morality alone is not enough to motivate people to comply with the mores of a society, imposing sanctions and penalties on people who violate specific provisions of the law will provide such a motivation. Unlike civil law, which involves the private imposition of sanctions for violation, the penalties for a violation of criminal law are imposed by the state.


  • Criminal law can be divided into three general groups.
    First, there is felony criminal law. This is the most serious type of criminal law, focusing on the most significant type of crime. The penalties associated with committing a felony or breaking a criminal law classified as a felony, include prison time, large fines and, in some instances, a sentence of death.
    Second, a lesser type of criminal law is a misdemeanor. This involves a less serious crime but can still result in a jail sentence (usually less than a year) and fines.
    Finally, there is what is known as an infraction. This is a type of illegal conduct. However, some scholars do not classify it as a true crime. An example of an infraction is a ticket for a traffic infraction.


  • There are five intended effects of a criminal law. Retribution for the crime committed is one motivation of criminal law. A criminal law is also designed to provide deterrence. Third, a criminal law is intended to incapacitate a wrongdoer, to keep the person who is guilty of a crime segregated from the community to some degree for some period of time. Fourth, one of the effects associated with a criminal law is to allow a victim of crime to obtain an appropriate form of restitution. Finally, an effect of criminal law is to rehabilitate the wrongdoer with the goal that this person will not re-offend.


  • The theories that have developed around criminal justice generally and the application of criminal law specifically center on how the five intended effects should be balanced. For example, one of the theories is that society as a whole benefits if a criminal can be rehabilitated. Therefore, those individuals that espouse such a position believe the criminal justice system should focus on rehabilitation through the application of a criminal law. At the other extreme are those individuals who believe that the primary purpose of a criminal law should be retribution and punishment. In such an situation, the emphasis of a criminal law would be on sanctions and penalties.

How to Get Into Law School with Bad Grades

Admission to law school is more than a numbers game. Undergraduate grades and LSAT scores play an important part in the law school admissions process. However, law schools also consider other circumstances before they make their final decisions to admit prospective students. Factors that play a significant qualitative role are undergraduate degrees, personal statements and letters of recommendation. Applying early can also maximize your chances of getting in.

Grades Are Not Everything

  1. Getting into law school with bad grades is a challenge. Law schools often consider the difficulty of an applicant’s undergraduate major, notes Jannell Roberts, associate dean of admissions at Loyola Law School in Los Angeles, For example, an applicant may have a 4.0 in construction management while another applicant may have a 2.7 in architectural engineering. Obviously, the engineering major has more obstacles to overcome and has better demonstrated an ability to grasp difficult material. In addition, admission committees also consider the rank or prestige of the undergraduate school. An upward grade trend can also affect the likelihood of admission.
  2. The personal statement is probably the most important qualitative element of an applicant’s file. Robert Schwartz, dean of admissions and financial aid at the University of California in Los Angeles, advises applicants to give special emphasis to significant socioeconomic disadvantages and hardships or unusual life experiences that have been overcome. You could also show how your admission would markedly diversify the student body or the legal profession. The admissions committee also considers work experience and career achievement, community service and leadership qualities.
  3. The best letters of recommendation are detailed, specific and give information on how well an applicant compares to his peers. Recommenders should offer examples of academic ability and characteristics necessary for success in law school. Letters should also show how that applicant’s skills will translate in the law school setting. In addition, letters should show a solid academic or professional relationship with the applicant. Never submit letters from family members or from family friends.
  4. Some law schools use a rolling admissions policy, which is helpful for applicants with poor undergraduate grades or low LSAT scores. Applicants have the advantage of being considered early in the process.

Criminal Law – Choose the Right Lawyer for Right Judgment

When a person is stuck with the criminal case, inviting for more trouble is the last thing he or she will be doing. We all wish to get rid of the case as soon as possible having the judgment in our favor. It is never acceptable to lose a case when you know you are right; however, it can happen if you do not get the fair trial or fair representation. In Singapore, criminals are treated with a stern hand. They are never allowed to let go without proper judgment. In case you are accused of something like this but you haven’t committed that crime, it is better to play safe by hiring the right lawyer.

Criminal law in Singapore is a public document but not everyone is aware of it. Travelers, foreigners and even various citizens who do not get involved into such activities or are just not informed about the criminal laws. Not knowing or understanding a law related to crime is quite normal given you are ready to face the situation in the right manner. First of all, try to hire the best lawyer as soon as possible. The police officer tries to present the accused in front of the magistrate within a couple of hours after arrests given all the circumstances are suitable.

To have a fair trial and fair representation in front of the law, criminal lawyers are the best chosen options. They can guide you about the procedure, explaining every little thing associated with case. All this is very essential since you need to understand why you are being booked for the criminal case, what are the charges and possible sentence given under these cases or your case. Apart from this, in case you have no idea about the law or how things work in Singapore, which often happens in case of the foreigners and travelers living here, the lawyer can come in handy.

Having someone by your side during tough times surely a great feeling. Select the best lawyer who is well aware of the criminal law in Singapore and can help you in every way. The lawyer will have to help in establishing your reputation in the court of law by collecting basic documents and evidences to prove your innocence. Apart from this, he will have to do all this in time without wasting any time. Start looking for the right lawyer by going through several best ones.

Why Every Aspiring Lawyer Should Study International Law

EU flag and gavel

The emergence of Islamic State and the ever-present threat of terrorism has highlighted the role of international law.

And while some aspiring lawyers may dismiss the subject as outside the scope of the UK legal system and therefore irrelevant, the truth is, they’re missing the point.

Studying international law allows students to develop insights into the global legal system and its influence on both national and international policies.

Dr Michèle Olivier, a lecturer in international law at the University of Hull’s law school and one of eight experts who helped draft the 1993 South African constitution, says trainee lawyers must take into account what’s going on abroad.

“We have international controversies and are engaged in the war against terror. Students must also understand that we are part of Nato and, even if you practice in the UK, you will be confronted with international law,” says Olivier.

The world is interconnected as never before, says Robert Volterra, partner and principal of public international law firm Volterra Fietta. “Everyone is affected by war in the Middle East, the transmission of Russian gas to western Europe, and piracy in the South China Sea.

“There are treaties regulating almost every human activity, including child custody, the content of breakfast cereals, and what compensation travellers receive if an airline loses luggage,” says Volterra.

“Can a lawyer in the 21st century have a proper legal education that omits the one area of law to which she and her clients will be subject on a daily basis?”

Whether you hope to pursue a career solely in the UK or internationally, knowledge of international law will be useful because of the globalisation of legal practice.

For Samuel Feldman, a second-year law student at the London School of Economics, studying public international law as an optional module has helped him build useful contacts with experts in international law – from professors to practitioners.

“International law professors have usually worked in the field, and having experienced professionals teach you is very beneficial,” he says.

Deborah Matthews at James Legal Solicitors in Hull, who worked as a family lawyer for many years before obtaining a master’s in international law, says studying the subject has been hugely beneficial.

“During my first law degree I developed a real interest in European Union competition law and trade, and its impact on national law, and I wanted to explore this area further. I also became interested in international criminal law and national security,” she says.

“These interests led me to study international law. I obtained a master’s in areas that interested me and gained specialist knowledge that has enhanced my career prospects,” she says.

International institutions, such as the International Court of Justice, have many opportunities for young lawyers in the field of international law. But studying it can boost your prospects in related areas of interest too, such as human rights.

Studying international law can also give you a leg up when applying for non-legal internships or work placements at the United Nations or the European Union, including at the European Commission, the Council of the EU and the European Parliament.

These institutions are renowned for providing opportunities for those who specialise in international law. Michael Greenfield, an international law student at the University of Southampton, received an offer of an internship at the UN’s New York headquarters.

“International law has opened up exciting opportunities for me,” he says. “I have developed knowledge of key concepts and structures, which I will be putting into practice this summer at the UN.

“This doesn’t mean that my career path has narrowed down – in fact, it has opened up an array of opportunities that I wouldn’t have known about if I was not studying international law.”

In an era of tighter legal budgets and government cuts, specialist knowledge and flexibility are increasingly demanded of lawyers. An awareness of international law is a strong advantage in today’s globalised world.